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The effects of language learning and math mindsets on academic success in an engineering programBackground Mindsets are based on two basic assumptions: some people think that their intellectual abilities can be developed through hard work and instruction (i.e., a growth mindset), whereas others believe that nothing can change their level of intellectual ability (i.e., a fixed mindset). The association between mindsets and academic achievement has been examined in different academic subjects, such as biology and math. However, no previous study has examined the effects of language learning mindsets (LLMs) and math mindsets (MMs) on academic success in an English medium instruction (EMI) setting in which English, rather than the first language of the students, is used for teaching content (e.g., mechatronics engineering). Purpose/Hypothesis This study explores the relationship between Turkish mechatronics engineering undergraduate students' domain-specific mindsets, LLMs and MMs, and their academic success. Design/Method Student test scores for English medium and first-language medium courses were collected from fourth-year students studying mechatronics engineering (n = 68) at a public university in Turkey. Students also completed the LLM and MM inventories. Results Regression analyses revealed that growth LLM and MM were positive predictors of EMI and Turkish medium of instruction (TMI) academic success, whereas fixed LLM and MM were negative predictors of EMI and TMI academic success. Conclusions In both EMI and TMI courses, a growth mindset in math and language learning can profoundly predict students' academic achievement in a mechatronics engineering program. We argue that domain-specific mindsets can effectively explain the self-theories of intelligence and achievement.
Impact of nutrition interventions for reduction of anemia in women of reproductive age in low- and middle-income countries: a meta-reviewThe UN Sustainable Development Goal aims at a 50% reduction of anemia in women of reproductive age (WRA) by 2030. Several nutrition-specific and sensitive interventions are targeted across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to reduce anemia. In this meta-review we comprehensively assessed the effectiveness of nutrition-specific and -sensitive interventions on hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (SF) concentrations and the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among WRA, pregnant women, and lactating women from LMICs. The preparation of the present meta-review followed a double-blinded synthesis process with 3 stages: screening, quality appraisal, and data extraction in Eppi Reviewer. A comprehensive search was performed for systematic reviews (SRs) published between January 2000 and May 2022 using 21 international, national, and regional databases. The methodological quality appraisal of included studies was conducted using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist. A total of 23 SRs evaluated the effects of various nutrition-specific interventions included in the final synthesis. The included SRs included analyses of nutrition-specific interventions such as supplementation of the nutrients iron (n = 7), iron and folic acid (n = 4), vitamin A (n = 3), calcium (n = 2), multiple micronutrients (n = 7), and intravenous iron sucrose (n = 2). Also, SRs on fortification of nutrients included multiple micronutrients (n = 6), iron and folic acid (n = 4), and iron (n = 4). Of the 23 SRs, 22 were of high quality. Iron with or without folic acid supplementation and fortification and vitamin A supplementation consistently showed positive effects on either reduction in the prevalence of anemia or iron deficiency and improving the Hb or SF concentrations in WRA and pregnant women from LMICs. The comprehensive meta-review reported the beneficial effects of iron with or without folic acid, multiple micronutrient supplementation/fortification, and vitamin A supplementation in reducing the prevalence of anemia or iron deficiency and increasing Hb or SF concentrations in WRA from LMICs.
Breaking up sitting with short frequent or long infrequent physical activity breaks does not lead to compensatory changes in appetite, appetite-regulating hormones or energy intakeThe aim of this study was to determine the appetite-related responses to breaking up prolonged sitting with physical activity bouts differing in frequency and duration among adult females. Fourteen sedentary females aged 34 ± 13 years with a body mass index of 27.1 ± 6.3 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) took part in a randomised crossover trial with three, 7.5 h conditions: (1) uninterrupted sitting (SIT), (2) sitting with short frequent 2-min moderate-intensity walking breaks every 30 min (SHORT-BREAKS), and (3) sitting with longer duration, less frequent 10-min moderate-intensity walking breaks every 170–180 min (LONG-BREAKS). The intensity and total duration of physical activity was matched between the SHORT-BREAKS and LONG-BREAKS conditions. Linear mixed models were used to compare the outcomes between conditions with significance being accepted as p ≤ 0.05. There were no significant between-condition differences in hunger, satisfaction, prospective food consumption or overall appetite area under the curve (AUC) (all p ≥ 0.801). Absolute ad libitum energy intake and relative energy intake (REI) did not differ significantly between conditions (all p ≥ 0.420). Acylated ghrelin and total peptide YY incremental and total AUC did not differ significantly between conditions (all p ≥ 0.388). Yet, there was a medium effect size for the higher acylated ghrelin incremental AUC in SHORT-BREAKS versus SIT (d = 0.61); the reverse was seen for total AUC, which was lower in SHORT-BREAKS versus SIT (d = 0.69). These findings suggest that breaking up sitting does not lead to compensatory changes in appetite, appetite hormones or energy intake regardless of physical activity bout duration and frequency among adult females.
Teacher mindset and grit: how do they change by teacher training, gender, and subject taught?This study explored the interplay between teacher mindsets and grit levels of Turkish pre-service teachers taking their year of study into account (i.e., first-year vs the fourth year), gender, and the subject taught in a Turkish higher education setting. Student teachers from various programmes at a public university in Turkey participated in the study (N = 321). The participants completed the Teacher Mindset Scale and Grit Scale online after receiving the approval of the university’s ethics committee and signing the consent forms. The correlations between the components of teacher mindset and grit demonstrated that as growth teacher mindset scores increased, and effort scores also increased significantly. Furthermore, as fixed teacher mindset scores increased, interest scores decreased. First-year pre-service teachers had significantly higher fixed teacher mindset scores than the fourth year. In terms of grit, fourth-year pre-service teachers showed greater effort than the first year. There was no difference between female and male pre-service teachers regarding fixed teacher mindset. However, female pre-service teachers scored significantly higher on growth teacher mindset, interest, and effort scales. As for the subject taught, the Mathematics Education programme showed higher levels of fixed teacher mindset and the English Language Teaching programme showed lower levels of grit. Practical implications of our findings and limitations of the study are shared accordingly.
The Frail-LESS (LEss Sitting and Sarcopenia in Frail older adults) intervention to improve sarcopenia and maintain independent living via reductions in prolonged sitting: a randomised controlled feasibility trial protocolBackground Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalised loss of muscle mass and function with advancing age and is a major contributor to frailty. These conditions lead to functional disability, loss of independence, and lower quality of life. Sedentary behaviour is adversely associated with sarcopenia and frailty. Reducing and breaking up sitting should thus be explored as an intervention target for their management. The primary aim of this study, therefore, is to examine the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that evaluates a remotely delivered intervention to improve sarcopenia and independent living via reducing and breaking up sitting in frail older adults. Methods This mixed-methods randomised controlled feasibility trial will recruit 60 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥ 65 years with very mild or mild frailty. After baseline measures, participants will be randomised to receive the Frail-LESS (LEss Sitting and Sarcopenia in Frail older adults) intervention or serve as controls (usual care) for 6 months. Frail-LESS is a remotely delivered intervention comprising of tailored feedback on sitting, information on the health risks of excess sitting, supported goal setting and action planning, a wearable device that tracks inactive time and provides alerts to move, health coaching, and peer support. Feasibility will be assessed in terms of recruitment, retention, and data completion rates. A process evaluation will assess intervention acceptability, safety, and fidelity of the trial. The following measures will be taken at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months: sitting, standing, and stepping using a thigh-worn activPAL4 device, sarcopenia (via hand grip strength, muscle mass, and physical function), mood, wellbeing, and quality of life. Discussion This study will determine the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of evaluating a remote intervention to reduce and break up sitting to support improvements in sarcopenia and independent living in frail older adults. A future definitive RCT to determine intervention effectiveness will be informed by the study findings.