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  • Ethical implementation of artificial intelligence in the service industries

    Vatankhah, Sanaz; Bamshad, Vahideh; Arici, H.E.; Duan, Yanqing; (Taylor and Francis, 2024-05-21)
    This study employs a systematic literature review (SLR) combined with bibliometric analysis to investigate the ethical implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the service industries. This research uncovers key challenges such as privacy, bias, transparency, and accountability, emphasizing the critical need for ethical AI practices in service sectors handling sensitive customer data. Findings reveal that AI’s ethical implementation is crucial in areas like decision support, customer engagement, automation, and new service development. The analysis provides actionable insights into enablers, including ethical guidelines, human oversight, comprehensive training, and adaptive organizational culture, which are essential for unlocking AI’s potential and mitigating risks. The study offers a roadmap for future research, advocating interdisciplinary collaboration, customer co-creation in ethical frameworks, and sector-specific policy adaptation, ultimately aiming to build responsible and trustworthy AI in the service industries.
  • Outcome measures in therapeutic settings within social care: perspectives from management, therapists, supervisors, and clients

    Sammut, Claire (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2024-01-09)
    The importance of collecting client feedback in social service provision has been increasingly acknowledged over the years. Outcome measures were recently introduced in a therapeutic service in Malta. This thesis explores whether the introduction of outcome measures within a social care organisation helps towards increasing the client’s voice in therapy and during clinical case management supervision. It adopts a systemic framework to look at the interconnectedness between the various sub-systems. Data was collected by means of thirty interviews and two focus groups. Initially baseline data was collected via fifteen interviews with therapists, to gain insight into the use of outcome measures in practice. Over the following six-month period, outcome measures were administered more frequently with clients. The results were subsequently discussed during clinical case management supervision. Qualitative data at follow up stage was subsequently gathered from two focus groups which were held with thirteen therapists, as well as interviews with three leaders, with the manager, and with the Chief Executive Officer. Interviews were also held with ten clients in an effort to seek further understanding of their experience using outcome measures as part of service provision. The findings of the study demonstrate that using outcome measures as a therapeutic instrument helps to strengthen the client’s voice in therapy as the results of outcome measures helps generate new insight by therapists, by supervisors, and by clients. This study proposes a new tripartite supervision model, wherein the use of outcome measures supports the client’s construal to remain at the centre of the supervision process, acting as a triangulated common factor between the therapist, client, and the supervisor. It is recommended that decisions concerning the use of outcome measures should remain at operational level, to overcome resistance to the instruments when perceived as a control mechanism.
  • A study on factors affecting eco-friendly tourism products purchase intention in the context of Jordan

    Al.Mahmoud, Ayat (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2024-04-01)
    Tourism sector has developed over the years as one of the main contributors to the nation’s socio-economy. However, the irresponsible behavior of tourists is the leading cause of the natural environment’s depletion. Consumer behaviour to embrace eco-friendly consumption is an essential component of environmental protection, which finally benefits society. Consumers today are more likely to support environmental protection by embracing eco-friendly, sustainable consumption practices. Therefore, fostering and encouraging ecologically conscious behaviour among travellers is essential. In other words, to move towards a more sustainable future for tourism, changes in consumer behaviour are a crucial step. This research aims to identify and empirically validate the key factors influencing the purchase intention of eco-friendly tourism products in the context of Jordan. To achieve the research aim, a deductive approach was adopted to understand the relevance and influence of the variables and their significant relationships. Based on the extensive literature review and underpinned by the social impact theory and responsible environmental behaviour (REB), a research model was proposed to theorise the relationships between the identified factors that include social impact factors, Electronic Word of Mouth (EWOM) Credibility, Environmental Attitude, Altruism, Environmental Knowledge and the Eco-friendly Tourism Products Purchase Intention. To further enrich our understanding on the complex relationships and influences of the identified key factors, the study examined how Electronic Word of Mouth (EWOM) credibility and environmental attitude mediate the relationship between social impact factors (Source Strength, Source Immediacy, Number of Source) and the eco-friendly purchase intention; and how the environmental knowledge and altruism moderate the relationship between EWOM credibility and consumers’ environmental attitudes and between consumers’ environmental attitudes and customers’ intention to purchase eco-friendly tourism products. The quantitative method was employed to collect data using online surveys and to empirically validate the research model and associated hypotheses. Using purposive sampling strategy Eight hundred questionnaires were sent to this target population, Jordanian and international tourists who use social media for tourism-related purposes. Six hundred-eight responses were received. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) using Partial Least Squares (PLS) was used. The findings revealed that the source strength and IV the number of sources are significant factors that determine the behavioural intention to purchase eco-friendly tourism products, while source immediacy was found insignificant. Also, the resultant outcomes of this study revealed mediating effects of EWOM and environmental attitudes in the sequential positive relationship between Source Strength, Number of Source, and the Eco-friendly purchase intention. However, revealed non-significant mediating effects of EWOM and environmental attitudes in the sequential positive relationship between source immediacy and Eco-friendly purchase intention. Another key finding is that altruism and environmental knowledge significantly moderated the relationships between EWOM credibility and eco-friendly tourist attitude. However, altruism and environmental knowledge had non-significant moderating effects on the relationships between eco-friendly tourist attitudes and tourist eco-friendly purchase intention. Consequently, the present study might demonstrate that tourists with high altruism and environmental knowledge are more effective in evaluating a EWOM Credibility and affecting their attitude toward eco-friendly products.
  • How is theory used to understand and inform practice in the alternative provision sector in England: trends, gaps and implications for practice

    Johnston, Craig; Malcolm, Andrew David; Pennacchia, Jodie; University of the West of England; University of Bedfordshire; University of Birmingham (Taylor and Francis, 2024-04-25)
    This article examines how theory features in the research literatures concerning the English alternative (education) provision (AP) sector. Despite increasing interest over the past decade in how AP can (re)engage school-aged young people in learning, there has been no comprehensive review of the theoretical ideas used to understand, analyse, and inform practice in the sector. This article presents a framework for categorising the literature on AP, which refer to theory. This framework is of international relevance and can be used by researchers who are seeking to understand the state-of-knowledge on AP in their own contexts. Applied to the English context, this framework demonstrates trends and gaps in the ways theory is used to frame and understand the sector by researchers and practitioners. The framework highlights a shortage of published research which seeks to understand how practitioners in English APs understand, and use, theoretical ideas, concepts, and frameworks to inform their work with young people. We also find that theories drawn from psychological and therapeutic orientations are more common than those drawing on socio-political framings. We reflect on the causes and implications of these trends and gaps and conclude with suggestions for future research to better understand them.
  • Mitigating the impact of harmful algal blooms on aquaculture using technological interventions: case study on a South African farm

    Ajmal, Tahmina; Mohammed, Fazeel; Goodchild, Martin S.; Sudarsanan, Jipsy; Halse, Sarah; University of Bedfordshire; Abagold Limited (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2024-04-26)
    Seafood, especially from the ocean, is now seen as a greener and more sustainable source of protein, causing an increase in its demand. This has also led to people making choices towards seafood as a replacement for carbon-intensive protein sources. As a result, the demand for seafood is growing, and as the aquaculture industry looks to increase production, keeping products safe and sustainable is imperative. There are many challenges faced by the aquaculture industry in meeting these increased demands. One such challenge is the presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the ocean, which can have a major impact on aquatic life. In this paper, we look at the impact of this challenge on aquaculture and monitoring strategies whilst illustrating the potential for technological interventions to help mitigate the impact of an HAB. We will focus on Abagold Limited, a land-based marine aquaculture business that specialises in the large-scale production of abalone (Haliotis midae) based in Hermanus, South Africa. HABs are considered a threat to commercial-scale abalone farming along the South African coastline and require continuous monitoring. The most recent HAB was in February–April 2019, when the area experienced a severe red-tide event with blooms of predominantly Lingulodinium polyedrum. We present some of the monitoring strategies employing digital technologies to future-proof the industry. This article presents the development of a novel hybrid water quality forecasting model based on a TriLux multi-parameter sensor to monitor key water quality parameters. The actual experimental real water quality data from Abagold Limited show a good correlation as a basis for a forecasting model which would be a useful tool for the management of HABs in the aquaculture industry.

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