• Help-seeking for perinatal mental health: South Asian women’s experiences in Luton

      Moghul, Fariha (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-09-06)
      The objective was to identify the current care pathway for Perinatal Mental Health (PMH) in Luton, and to explore South Asian women’s views on factors that influence help-seeking with a view to making recommendations to local service development (LBC, BLMK). Method Focus groups were used to explore the factors (barriers and enablers) that influenced the help-seeking of local South Asian women for perinatal mental health. 5 focus groups (FG) were conducted with n=17 women, from various South Asian countries and ethnic subgroups, all of whom had children who had been born locally. Luton has a large ethnic population in areas of high social and material deprivation, with a fast growing birth rate, placing them at increased risk of perinatal mental illness (PMI), but conversely has low levels of reported mental illness from within these areas. Findings The findings indicate that community; extended family, religious and cultural beliefs have a significant impact on the development, recognition and treatment of PMI, forming a complicated mesh of considerations that need to be integrated when designing local PMH services for differing populations. Conclusion Improving healthcare engagement may require a three pronged approach of; developing more culturally attuned services; a community social awareness programme endorsed by community leaders and; a socio-healthcare programme to sustain healthy spousal and familial relationships and change cultural attitudes towards motherhood to help prevent the development of PMI. These changes may reduce stress in the post-partum year, where caring for a new baby means that illnesses are more likely to develop and contribute to healthy and positive family relationships, with long-term health, social and life trajectory benefits for the family, community and society in general.
    • Higher education in virtual worlds: the use of Second Life and OpenSim for educational practices

      Christopoulos, Athanasios (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2013-03)
      This thesis explores the features of Second Life and OpenSim that affect the choice of academics who are planning to use a virtual world in order to meet the learning needs of their students. For the conduct of this study, what was taken into account is a preexisting framework which proposes the evaluation of virtual worlds against four dimensions: their contexts, the immersion encountered within each, their cost, and their persistence. The research aimed to validate, enhance or alter the framework on which it is based, and also highlight the similarities and differences between Second Life and OpenSim worlds, either internally or externally hosted ones, against these four dimensions. For the fulfillment of this objective, academics were interviewed and students were asked to fill in some questionnaires. However, the findings suggested that none of these options is “the best”. On the contrary, the answer to the question “Which is the ideal virtual world for the conduct of educational projects?” is “It depends on each educator’s needs”. Nevertheless, this thesis provides clear guidance to academics who face the decision to use virtual worlds for educational purposes.
    • Hitchcock, Tati and Leone: style, narrative and directorial approaches in mainstream cinema and their relationship to contemporary screen-dance practice.

      King, Deborah Tiso (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-06)
      This research recommends the style, narrative and directorial approaches of Alfred Hitchcock, Jaques Tati and Sergio Leone as a relevant point of reference for current screen-dance practice. Their specific cinematic authored models were tested in order to determine whether the framework could provide a flexible enough methodology for the making and producing of effective screen-dance, and in the hopes of providing new pathways for the researcher’s screen-dance practice. The cinematic authors selected for scrutiny were Alfred Hitchcock, Jaques Tati, and Sergio Leone. The criterion for this selection was determined by the directors’ stylistic and narrative preferences, and democratic approaches to sound and image making. Five screen-dances were produced for this research between 2004 and 2011 and a further two in 2014 and 2016: Vanishing point (Tiso, 2004), Tippi: Crying Fowl (Tiso, 2007) and Nil desperandum) (Tiso, 2012) were based on the Hitchcock oeuvre, Souvenir (Tiso, 2005) was based on the Tati opus and Crimes (Tiso, 2005) on Sergio Leone’s legacy. Flow (Tiso, 2014) and The big sofa (Tiso, 2016) were developed out of the findings of a completed directorial, stylistic, narrative listing. This thesis is largely a piece of self-enquiry. The researcher has been methodical in how she has approached her own work, so that the work is presented as a heuristic analysis interwoven woven into body of the practical components.
    • Homecoming – an Irish ghost story: reflections on the Irish gothic tradition

      Rushby, Elleesa (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-10)
      This thesis and my creative work, Homecoming, aim to explore some of the reasons why the Anglo-Irish were so prolific at writing supernatural and in particularly Gothic fiction during the 19th century, particularly as an expression of their fragile identity within the broader British Empire and in Ireland. Homecoming, while set at the end of WW2, examines a fictional legacy of ‘The Hunger’ on the colonised Catholic Irish, dealing with the taboo subject of cannibalism. Homecoming’s Gothic mode, includes elements such as the uncanny and the family curse, blending The Big House with folklore and storytelling, as an allegory on the dysfunctional relationship between Protestants and Catholics in the uncertainty and isolationism of post-emergency Ireland. The thesis explores how the Anglo-Irish abjected the Catholic Irish out of fear of losing control, manipulating their literary depiction for commercial and political reasons, while robbing them of the agency to tell their own story. It traces the migration of Anglo-Irish Gothic into English Literature, appropriation of the Catholic Irish experience and questions colonial depiction of the colonised. The thesis offers a basis for discussion about the attitudes and behaviours of the characters in Homecoming.
    • 'How do nurses and midwives gain their research skills in relation to: understanding research and applying research findings to' practice?'

      Sapsed, Margaret Susan (University of Bedfordshire, 2003-04)
      This study explores how nurses/midwives gain their research skills (defined as understanding research and applying research findings to practice) by looking at reading practices, formal research courses and participation in research. The study was undertaken in three phases, the first phase - an enquiry audit, the second phase - a survey and the final phase - interviews and focus groups. The initial part of the study was undertaken in the form of an enquiry audit to explore the developmental stages that nursing and midwifery research had taken between 1980 - 1995 and whether in 1999 these changes were continuing. This phase revealed that the professional influences and practice changes in nursing and midwifery were reflected in the research of this period. It also confirmed that a substantial percentage of authors were either professorial or senior nurse/midwives, not practice based staff. The number of studies increased significantly with the transference of professional education into higher education. The recognition of evidence-based care in nursing and midwifery became evident. The written style of research papers changed under the influence of academia. In conclusion it could be seen that published research during this period had progressed through several developmental stages. The enquiry audit results produced a framework for the second phase; in that it highlighted the need for all nurses and midwives to develop skills to both understand research and apply the findings to practice. This resulted in the construction of a survey to discover how nurses/midwives gained these research skills. The survey was conducted over a three-year period. It considered the research skills of nurses/midwives entering the profession who qualified through certificate, diploma or degree courses. The results showed that the majority of nurses/midwives do not actively read. Formal research courses enable knowledge to be gained but not retained, because the skills acquired frequently were not used in practice, so over time they were lost. Participation in research in the clinical areas was limited, and more often it was restricted to one facet such as handing out questionnaires or collecting data This did not enable the complete understanding of the research process. The degree/diploma results were marginally better than the results of the certificated nurses/midwives. Many barriers to the understanding of research were cited and likewise in relation to the implementation of research, for example the resistance of using new research in practice, lack of support by senior managers, and medical staff considering research was not nurses/midwives territory. The final phase was designed to establish whether the findings in the survey could be supported. The first part of phase three used interviews these results were then compared to the survey results, endorsing those results. Then the focus groups considered the same questions. The results from the focus groups reinforced and confinned the previous findings. The recommendations from the study are firstly that all students completing a first degree or higher degree should undertake a research module. Research modules should become more interactive enabling a deeper understanding of the process and application of research. Through this experiential learning it would be expected that the research skills would be retained for a longer period. Secondly to establish within a Trust or group of Trusts Nursing and Midwifery Research Units, to enhance the role of nursing and midwifery research. It would be anticipated that the research nurses/midwives together with the consultant nurses/rnidwive,s would become actively engaged in research initiatives within the clinical areas. Finally, and vitally important is to construct collaborative and meaningful partnerships between Universities and NHS Research Units to support and develop new initiatives.
    • How do preschool children develop literacy skills? : an exploration of parents' views on how they promote early learning

      Mupemba, Karen (University of Bedfordshire, 2008-10-08)
      Preschool literacy and social skills are crucial in promoting educational and social trajectories especially for children from disadvantaged backgrounds (Olsen and Deboise, 2007). Early childhood interventions in the United Kingdom aim to equip preschool children with skills to prepare them for school and to form a base for future development (potter, 2007). Human beings are known to develop rapidly in the first five years of life, indeed parents are acknowledged as children's first educators, and they can capitalise on this crucial period by providing stimulating and educationally rich environments (Shonkoff and Meisels, 2003). This study sought to assess preschool children's literacy skills and explore the views of their parents on their role in promoting early literacy, their involvement in preschool activities and their expectations from nursery schools. The study also tried to establish a link between the parents' practices and their children's performance in nursery school. Grounded theory approach was used because of the need to explore parents' perceptions, views and attitude with regards to promoting preschool literacy skills. Twelve preschool children were observed at play in nursery school using the Schedule for Growing Skills 11 (1996) mainly focusing on verbal comprehension, manipulative skills and social and emotional development. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve parents of preschool children to gain insight into their views on promoting preschool literacy in the home. Findings revealed that although some parents with low level education and those with low income valued preschool literacy, they did not engage in structured play and interaction with their children to promote literacy skills, citing time constraints and low self efficacy. The children who did not speak English as a first language at home showed significant communication difficulties, suggesting that language was a barrier to the development of school readiness. Findings also indicated that the children whose parents engaged in home learning activities demonstrated preschool competences that prepared them very well for formal education. Some parents who took measures to promote early literacy felt their children did not have much instruction from nursery school on reading, writing and counting, but gained good social skills. The study recommended conceptualising new ways for early years practitioners such as health visitors, nursery nurses and school based family support workers, to help parents engage more aggressively and effectively on strategies that promote early literacy skills. Health visitors and General Practitioners can work together to identify developmental delays and speech and language difficulties to ensure early interventions by specialist services like Speech and Language Therapy. In nursery schools, more resources and capacity are required to ensure that children who need extra support are offered one to one interventions to ensure that they catch up with their peers. Another recommendation drawn from the findings is for early years professionals to encourage and support non-English speaking parents to attend English classes so that they can help their children communicate better in English. Adult literacy programmes can also help parents with low education levels and low self-efficacy to gain confidence in helping their children to learn. The implications of the findings also indicate a need for closer working relationships between agencies such as social care, health and education to provide seamless support to children and families, especially with difficult social circumstances (Department for Health, 2008). It is also hoped that the findings will have implications on designing of targeted interventions for structured parent child interactions especially for parents who lack self efficacy in guiding education related behaviours at home.
    • How is shamanism represented in fantasy fiction? A study into the ancient practice, its important elements, and how fantasy authors use them in their writing

      Ivatt, Heather; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-01)
      This thesis aims to explore the representation of shamanism in fantasy fiction, focusing on its various aspects and those who practice it. It is accompanied by an extract of my fantasy novel, "Transcendent", which follows Outcast: a man exiled by his people for his misuse of powers, who now charges innocents for helping them. He, and those like him, are known as Magickers and all but a few are left, the others having been slaughtered by an invading empire. The thesis will explore my use of Outcast’s character to demonstrate aspects of shamanism. This will be achieved by analysing a collection of fantasy novels. Those I will investigate are: "Clan of the Cave Bear", by Jean. M. Auel; "Shaman of Stonewylde", by Kit Berry; and the "Soldier Son" trilogy by Robin Hobb. I will also discuss the difference between shamanism and the occult, as the magic systems used in fantasy fiction can be associated with one or the other. Finally, my findings will be compared to my own creative work, to fully understand the representation of shamanism in the genre and how it can be applied in practice.
    • The identification of tumour antigens recognized by patients with Duke’s B (Stage II) reactive colorectal cancers using SEREX

      Boncheva, Viktoriya Bogdanova (University of Bedfordshire, 2013-12)
      Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in both men and women, posing a serious demographic and economic burden worldwide. In the UK, CRC affects one in every twenty people and it is often detected once well-established and after it has spread beyond the bowel (Stage IIA-C and Stage IIIA-C). A diagnosis at such advanced stages is associated with poor treatment response and survival. However, studies have identified two sub-groups of post-treatment CRC patients – those with good outcome (reactive disease) and those with poor outcome (non-reactive disease). Evidence indicates the presence of an effective immune response differentiates between those patients who respond well to treatment and those who do not. To investigate these underlying mechanisms we used the serological analysis of cDNA recombinant libraries (SEREX) technique to determine which antigens are recognised by patients in each group. Immunoscreening a healthy donor testes cDNA library with sera from three patients with Duke’s B reactive disease led to the identification of five antigens. These were (1) the immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 (G3m marker), IGHG3 gene, located on chromosome 14 at 14q32.33, which encodes IgG3, and was recognised by sera from patients CC005 and CC014; (2) the immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 2, IGHG2 gene, located on chromosome 14 at 14q32.33 and recognised by CC014 sera; while (3) CYB5R3, (4) RPL37A and (5) SLC34A2 were recognised by CC005, CC014 and CC014 sera respectively. CYB5R3 is a NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3 protein which has been shown to be upregulated in lung tissue with a RAS mutation in mice. Ribosomal protein L37a (RPL37A) has previously been shown to be upregulated in astrocytomas and to have a general association with lifetime glioblastoma survival and overall glioblastoma survival. Solute carrier family 34 member 2 (SLC34A2) encodes a protein which acts as a pH-sensitive sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. SLC34A2 has been shown to be upregulated in breast and ovarian cancers and it is suggested that SLC34A2 is involved in the process of carcinogenesis, making it an attractive target in therapeutic strategies and also as a diagnostic biomarker. Although other antigens were found, and their sequences identified, all were unknown and not found in the databases. RT-PCR analysis of the Duke’s B colon cancer cell line SW480 showed consistent expression of BCP-20. Although, expression of SSX2, NY-ESO-1, TSP50, HAGE and RAGE were detected, the data was not easily reproductible. Further optimisation of the PCR conditions and primer pairs would be necessary to confirm these findings. We hope in the future we can disern the role of these antigens in the inflammatory immune responses associated with reactive Dukes’ B colon cancer which would help us better understand the mechanisms which underlie effective anti-tumour responses post-surgery. It may also be that RPL37A is a biomarker for patient survival in colorectal cancer and this would be worthy of further investigation.
    • Identifying benefits and challenges in the application of agile methodologies in software development

      Streek, Alistair (University of Bedfordshire, 2015-03)
      Software has generally been developed using the ‘Waterfall’ methodology which is now believed to be cumbersome and slow to react to change. This belief has spawned new ‘Agile’ methodologies that aim to deliver small pieces of working software on a frequent basis. Many claims have been made about Agile, but little academic research has been carried out to justify them. This study identifies the significance of benefits and challenges practitioners have found when adapting to Agile methodologies. Further, the benefits and challenges are linked to the Agile features in use and assesses what contributes to the level of user satisfaction. A survey instrument was employed to collect data from as many practitioners as possible followed by post survey interviews. Claims made for Agile by service providers are compared to the experiences of those canvassed in the survey. Results reveal that the most significant benefit is closer collaboration with other members of the development team. Significant challenges were the estimation of the time and effort Agile projects take to complete and that Agile only works with competent, motivated people. The insights gained in this study will be circulated for the benefit of future research on software development methodologies and Agile practice.
    • Ideological analysis and cinema fiction

      Janmohamed, Shireen (University of Bedfordshire, 2009)
      Ideological analyses of cinema fictions usually employ a methodology using the critical Marxist concept of discursive strategies that are used to spuriously account for realities. With the changes to the international strategic power balance and the use of overwhelming fire-power in the pursuance of what is perceived to be the national interest, cinema fictions have begun to reflect this dangerous world. This thesis argues that a purely ideological analysis is inadequate to the task of interpreting contemporary political cinema texts, and it considers the use of Foucauldian concepts of power and power relations as supplementary to ideological analysis. The application to two cinema texts shows that the concepts used are not mutually exclusive, and Foucault’s thought is especially appropriate to these political cinema fictions. This is a novel approach as it has traditionally been thought that Foucault’s theory of discourse was developed as a counter to ideological analysis. But the research conducted here shows that Foucault’s criticism was aimed at the Marxist concept of ideology and as a consequence he suggested that ideology be treated as one element in a broader discourse of power relations. This is the approach that has been successfully adopted here.
    • The impact of generic advocacy on service users: using a social return on investment approach

      Sekiwa, Yvonne Elizabeth (University of Bedfordshire, 2012-09)
      Advocacy has become a popular way to support the most vulnerable in society, to overcome and resolve the issues they face within the health and social care sector. Advocacy today takes on many forms and has received attention from research over the years. One form of advocacy, however, has not received much research attention and is known as generic advocacy. Traditionally advocacy services have focused on either a particular user group or issue, and sometimes both. Generic advocacy services do not focus on particular group or issue, but are open to all who required advocacy support. Whilst there is available research on advocacy in general, and its impact and effectiveness, little is known about generic advocacy and the impact it has on those who use it. This study, using Social Return on Investment, as a methodological approach has explored the impact of generic advocacy on those who use it. The study has found generic advocacy services produce a variety of outcomes. Although these outcomes could be considered trivial by some, they are extremely important to those who experience them. The impact of the outcomes experienced by the participants in this study is often positive and life changing, making a real difference in their lives.
    • The impact of owners’ education and work experience on the growth of handicraft SMEs in Hyderabad region Pakistan

      Chachar, Ayaz Ahmed (University of Bedfordshire, 2013)
      The general purpose of this study is to investigate factors that positively affect growth in the small and medium size enterprises (SMEs). Preliminary research highlighted the fact that few (if any), past studies had focussed on the owners of SMEs and in particular if educational attainment and work experience had had any effect upon business growth. The author had a particular interest in Pakistani SMEs and coming from Sind, was interested in investigating these factors in Handicraft SMEs currently operating/located in Hyderabad, as (despite being significant local employers), handicraft SMEs in the Hyderabad region have (due to socio-political and socio-economic reasons), long been neglected by local and regional government. In this study (after undertaking secondary research and following the literature review stage), the author concluded that a face-to-face structured interview with the owners of SMEs in the handicrafts sector, combined with a short questionnaire approach to data collection, would yield the best results given the limited budget and short timeframe. The results of this (albeit small-scale and limited) study, indicate that there was indeed some evidence of a positive link between the level of education (as well as the experience), of Hyderabad SME owners and business growth. At the very least, this highlights the need for further study, whilst at the same time making Hyderabad’s policy-makers aware of the potential benefits of investing in educational support for owners of local SMEs.
    • The impact of personal poetics on a horror writer

      Edlin, Matthew (University of Bedfordshire, 2014-10)
      The horror genre invites challenges for the creative writer, new texts for its readers. A horror reader can only predict what he’s going to experience; through the glimpses of fear a horror writer might imagine what he’s going to write. This research thesis is an attempt to evaluate the horror genre from several different angles by simply reading and critiquing. It assesses the practice of being a horror writer, and evaluating areas of debate. Areas which carry less significance which need highlighting, a reflection upon personal poetics made between the writer and the text. Ultimately, new arguments were formed on the basis of what’s available in the field already, arguments which could be considered a contribution towards the horror genre.
    • Independent effects of 7-days imposed exercise on free-living energy balance and appetite-regulating hormones in males

      Mackie, Paul Ian (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-04)
      Study 1 examined the reliability of a photographic food diary (with additional written details) on free-living energy intake (EI) in 13 healthy males. Daily average EI did not differ significantly between two, 7-day periods (p = 0.116) but a large systematic bias (143 ± 715 kcal.day-1) and wide limits of agreement (LoA) (-1258 to 1545 kcal.day-1) were found. Study 2 examined the influence of imposed exercise (7 days) on energy balance and the acylated ghrelin and total PYY response to a meal. Five healthy males completed two, 7-day trials in a crossover randomised design: no exercise (N-EX) and exercise (EX; ~69% V􁈶 O2peak expending an average 815 kcal.day-1). EI and EE were assessed throughout each trial. Blood and appetite ratings (visual analogue scales; VAS) were collected the day prior to and 70 hours post each trial (fasting and for 3 hours postprandial; a final VAS after an ad libitum meal). Exercise significantly increased EI by 27% (p = 0.005), although participants remained in an energy deficit. Appetite regulating hormones and appetite ratings did not alter from pre- to 70 hours post-intervention. Thus, 7-days of imposed exercise induced a partial compensation through EI, without changes in appetite hormones or appetite ratings.
    • Influence of hypoxic preconditioning in-vivo to 30 minutes knee surgery specific tourniquet application

      Barrington, James Henry (University of Bedfordshire, 2013-10)
      Purpose: To establish whether a bout of hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) or ischemic preconditioning (IPC) would elicit a reduction in total knee replacement (TKR) surgery specific tourniquet mediated oxidative stress (OS) in-vivo. Methods: In an independent group design, 18 healthy men were exposed to 40 min of either: whole-body HPC (14.3% O2), IPC (four bouts of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion) or rest (SHAM), 1 h prior to 30 min TKR specific limb ischemia and 2 h reperfusion. Systemic blood samples were taken at pre- and post-intervention, additionally blood and gastrocnemius samples were obtained at pre-, 15 min post- (15PoT) and 120 min post-tourniquet deflation. Systemic leukocytes and gastrocnemius tissue were analysed for the heat shock protein (Hsp72) and Heat shock protein 32 (Hsp32) gene transcript response (indicates severity of the cellular stress response), with the systemic plasma also assessed for OS markers (protein carbonyl and glutathione (reduced, oxidised, total, reduced/oxidised-ratio)). Results: A 1.93 and 1.97 fold reduction in gastrocnemius Hsp72 was noted in individuals exposed to HPC (p = 0.007) and IPC (p = 0.006) respectively, in comparison to SHAM at 15PoT. No significant differences were observed in gastrocnemius Hsp32, systemic Hsp72, Hsp32 or OS markers (p > 0.05) between groups. Conclusions: HPC and IPC provided cytoprotection to ischemic stressed gastrocnemius tissue as indicated by an attenuated cellular stress response to 30 min TKR specific limb ischemia.
    • Information security policy : the National Payment System in Libya

      Sherif, Emad (University of Bedfordshire, 2012-05)
      Information security officers, practitioners and academics agree that information security policy is the basis of any organisation’s information security. Information security practitioners share and agree that it is rare that information security policy bring out the desirable results. In order to study and analyse this problem, academics have focused on various methods to motivate employees toward policy compliance, however, they have not paid much attention on employees’ expectations and how they perceive the information security policy. Also, employees’ satisfaction and awareness of information security policy is critical as it may improve the security level by decreasing the internal threat risks. In this thesis, analysing organisation’s employees’ expectation about information security policies based on a framework that is formed regarding internal threat motivation, consequences, security behaviour and security countermeasures. Therefore, single case study was adopted in this thesis. The study outcomes along with the case study findings state that organisation’s employees’ expectations toward an information security policy should be paid much attention during forming security regulations and even during implementation of information security policy within organisations. The thesis concludes that employees’ security behaviour is related to their information security background and awareness, as well as, security countermeasures, where if the countermeasures perceived negatively, it may negatively help to increase the risk in terms of internal threat. Finally, security countermeasures must be defined before taking negative actions toward employees, as well as, information security training should be scheduled regularly within organisation and they should be arranged regarding to the organisational groups’ professions.
    • Innovative navigation artificial intelligence for motor racing games

      Anderson, Joshua (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-05)
      Motor racing games are pushing the boundaries of realism and player experience. Artificial Intelligence (AI) allows developers to create believable opponents. By getting their AI to follow a racing line that is similar to that taken by real racing drivers, developers are able to create a sense that the AI racers are trained drivers. This paper identifies two methods used in the field: the sector based system and the sensor based system. The sector based approach offers two or more predetermined lines for the AI to follow, with added logic allowing the AI to judge when to switch between lines. The sensor method is able to guide AI vehicles around tracks with sensors, offering more possible behaviours and lines. After implementation, the strengths and weaknesses of both methods are realised. The planning and development of a hybrid system was based on these findings. The resulting system is able to produce a more believable line for the AI. With the setting up process of a race track the sector method taking a long time, exploration into tool development is conducted to reduce the process. The subsequent tool reduced the time needed to set up a track, providing results similar to the old method.
    • An insight in to the awareness levels about Hepatitis C in the international South Asian students of University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom

      Waqar, Muhammad (University of Bedfordshire, 2008-10)
      Migration all around the world is at its peak and it has brought a lot of challenges for Public Health system due to changing epidemiology of infectious diseases associated with migration. The paper is based on the possible un-noticed spread of Hepatitis C from South Asia to the United Kingdom because of low awareness levels of this disease in the immigrants especially students. The disease is more dangerous in contrast to Hepatitis A and B, as there is no vaccine to provide immunity against the Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Moreover, the costly and toxic treatment options can help in only fifty percent of the patients. It is thought that student’s involvement in risky behaviours make them more vulnerable to contract and transmit the disease. A Quantitative research approach has been used to conduct a cross-sectional, self administered questionnaire survey at the University of Bedfordshire, Luton, UK to know about the knowledge of Hepatitis C in students. A total of 71 International South Asian students (53 males and 18 females) were included in the survey by snow ball sampling. Data was analysed by SPSS version 12.0 software (95% C.I, P<0.05), using chi-square test for statistical significance. Self reported knowledge of Hepatitis C was 69% and it decreased to just 39.4% self reported knowledge for symptoms and 38% for the self reported awareness about transmission of disease. 74.6% participants seemed to know that the disease can be transmitted by contaminated needles and 69% recognised blood as route of transmission for the disease. Only 64.8% of the participants were able to relate jaundice with possible Hepatitis C infection. Misconceptions and concerns about transmission of disease by close contacts such as kissing were shown by majority of the participants. Some participants (59.2%) knew about the transmission of HCV through contaminated shaving blades while only few (32.4%) agreed that it can be transmitted by sharing toothbrushes. Just 29.6% participants knew about sexual transmission and only 9.9 percent participants realised that there is no vaccine for the protection against HCV. Bangladeshi and Sri-Lankan were amongst least aware ethnic groups; Participants <30 years and males had least knowledge about the disease. Finding of the study are suggestive that the overall knowledge of Hepatitis C among International South Asian students is extremely low and insufficient. They might be at a high risk of contracting and transmitting the disease so they should be treated as high risk group for the disease. There is an urgent need of campaigns to improve the awareness levels about transmission of Hepatitis C in this group.
    • An integrated inventory model for supply chain management

      Zhang, Xiaoliang (University of Bedfordshire, 2004-02)
      Improved integration of logistics processes across multiple companies of a supply chain is of increasing interest and importance. With modern information technologies, more and more companies intend to implement a logistics alliance strategy for co-operations in the supply chain. However, the implementation of the strategy highly depends on the integrated logistics models available. To this end, extensions of existing models may be required to facilitate the entire supply chain rather than individuals. Inventory management is one of the most important parts of logistics management. In this project, an integrated inventory model is built for a supply chain with a manufacturer, multiple upstream factories and mul1iple downstream vendors. Based on some assumptions, all the individual inventory behaviours are considered together to suggest an overall optimised plan to minimise the total inventory cost of the supply chain. Then, extensions are made to the integrated inventory model for practical considerations. A numerical analysis is conducted to compare the optimised results of the integrated model with the results of some existing models. Finally, conclusions and future perspectives are drawn.
    • Intelligent trolley

      Alotaibi, Sami (University of Bedfordshire, 2012)
      Intelligent Trolley is a new concept and has modified the regular shopping experience. The studies highlight that the intelligent trolley has provided more convenience and has eased shopping. Besides convenience it has saved time there is no need for the consumers to stand and wait in long queues to pay for their purchases which the consumers have been complaining about before. Studies also highlight the technological improvement that has been done over the shopping cart or trolley and the variety of services it offers to the consumers. Studies have discussed about the Radio Frequency Technology Identification (RFID) system that has been installed in the intelligent trolley. RFID is a more resistant and safer technology it identifies the product and provides the long range information. To read the product's RFID does not need direct contact and has a high range. RFID connects the cart with the store's system and provides navigation to the consumers throughout the aisles of store and identifies product location for them. My research conducted over the intelligent trolley highlights the impact it had over the supermarkets and the retail stores. Stores competed over the prices however the introduction of intelligent trolley has provided them competitive edge. It signifies the investment and the finance store would be required to make in order to introduce such technology. It highlights that the initially finance would be required but the benefits it would provide would outweigh the costs. it would provide the internet access to the consumers, upload their shopping list and download it at their trolley. The navigation system would provide them the exact location of their products even the specific products could be highlighted. Time wasted in finding the products would be saved and the consumers would not be required to stand in long queues. Intelligent trolley also provides some extra features that are extra service and entertainment to the customer. It is shown that different companies have worked on RFID scanners like Fujitsu and Microsoft who have launched their products and are modifying it as per the needs of the market and consumers. This research revealed that the introduction of this technology would require some finance and the stores would have to bear some costs in order to upgrade the IT systems. The supermarkets and the retail store have normally competed over the costs and tried to provide low price products to the customers however it has become hard to compete on this ground. The introduction of intelligent trolley would provide competitive edge to the store as they would be offering extra services to the customers. The prices that the stores offer are almost the same these new features offered in the form intelligent trolley would attract more customers. It would decrease the complaints they had regarding shopping at the stores. Intelligent would reduce their shopping time no longer waiting and roaming in the aisles for finding the products would be required.