• Advances in body-centric wireless communication: applications and state-of-the-art

      Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Alomainy, Akram; Qaraqe, Khalid (The IET, 2016-06-01)
    • Broadband antennas

      Zhang, Zhiya; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Yang, Xiaodong; Serpedin, Erchin; Ren, Aifeng; Zuo, Shaoli; Rahman, Atiqur; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain (IGI Global, 2015-08-01)
    • A circular patch frequency reconfigurable antenna for wearable applications

      Farooq, Waqas; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Qaraqe, Khalid; University of Bedfordshire; Texas A & M University at Qatar (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-12-07)
      A novel frequency reconfigurable microstrip patch antenna has been presented for 3.6 GHz and 5 GHz. Compared to the traditional, complicated and high cost frequency reconfigurable antennas, our work is featured by a simple and concise design. The frequency reconfiguration is obtained by using layers of mercury and liquid crystal polymer (LCP) on conventional patch antenna. The proposed structure was modelled and simulated using CST Microwave Studio. The antenna was first simulated in free space to check the antenna parameters such as return loss, gain, radiation pattern and efficiency. After obtaining the results, the antenna was simulated for analysing the on-body performance by using numerical model of human body. The simulated return loss for both the configurations is less than -10 dB at the radiating frequencies. The free space simulated results show the close agreement with the on-body test results.
    • Design and study of a small implantable antenna design for blood glucose monitoring

      Ahmed, Ayesha; Kalsoom, Tahera; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Ramzan, Naeem; Karim, Sajjad; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; University of Bedfordshire; University of West of Scotland; Foundation University Islamabad; University of Glasgow (Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Inc, 2018-10-12)
      In this paper, a miniaturized implantable antenna with the dimensions of 8×8×1 mm3 has been studied for continuous monitoring of Blood Glucose Levels (BGL). The antenna performance is analyzed numerically for both the free space and implanted operation. The results show that the works excellently in both the scenarios. The antenna has the lowest resonant frequency of 3.58 GHz in free space with a gain 1.18 GHz while it operates at 2.58 GHz with a gain of 4.18 dBi. Good performance, small size and resilience to the human body effects make the antenna to have a good potential use in future implantable glucose monitoring devices.
    • Design of a finger ring antenna for wireless sensor networks

      Farooq, Waqas; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Yang, Xiaodong; Qaraqe, Khalid (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-06-02)
      Body-centric communications have become very active area of research due to ever-growing demand of portability. Advanced applications such as; health monitoring, tele-medicine, identification systems, performance monitoring of athletes, defence systems and personal entertainment are adding to its popularity. In this paper, a novel wearable antenna radiating at 5 GHz for the body-centric wireless sensor networks has been presented. The antenna consists of a conventional microstrip patch mounted on a gold base and could be worn in a finger like a ring. CST Microwave Studio is used for modelling, simulation and optimisation of the antenna. The simulated results show that the proposed antenna has a -10 dB bandwidth of 90.3 MHz with peak gain of 6.9 dBi. Good performance in terms of bandwidth, directivity, gain, return loss and radiation characteristics, along with a miniaturised form factor makes it a very well suited candidate for the body-worn wireless sensor applications.
    • Design of band-notched ultra wideband antenna for indoor and wearable wireless communications

      Ur-Rehman, Masood; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Akram, Muhammad; Parini, Clive G.; University of Bedfordshire; Texas A & M University at Qatar; University of Engineering and Technology, Pakistan; Queen Mary University of London (Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2014-10-16)
      Design of a tapered-slot ultra wideband (UWB) band-notched wearable antenna is presented in this study. The antenna operation covers the whole UWB frequency spectrum of 7.5 GHz ranging from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz, while rejecting the wireless local area network operation at 5.25 GHz band. The performance of the antenna is analysed through simulations and validated through measurements. The antenna makes use of ultra-thin liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate. The presented return loss and radiation pattern results show that the antenna offers excellent performance in the UWB frequency band in free space. Use of the LCP substrate makes the antenna to efficiently mitigate the bending effects. Moreover, the antenna performs well in on-body configurations and its working is little affected in adversely hot and humid weather conditions. Furthermore, it offers good on-body communication link and pulse fidelity. These features make the proposed antenna design a well-suited choice for hand-held and wearable UWB applications.
    • Extremely low profile flexible antenna for medical body area networks

      Malik, Nabeel A.; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; University of Bedfordshire; University of Glasgow (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-01-11)
      Medical Body Area Networks (MBAN) are widely used in healthcare systems employing in- and on-body applications. An extremely low profile patch antenna for the MBANs is presented in this paper. The antenna consists of two flexible printed circuit boards (FPCB) separated by an air gap and uses a rectangular radiating patch with four slots. Two variants of the antenna having single and dual band operation are discussed. The single band antenna operates at 2.4 GHz while the dual band antenna works at frequencies of 2.4 GHz and 4.3 GHz. Both versions of the proposed antenna offer good bandwidth, high gain and radiation coverage for the MBAN applications.
    • Internet of things for sensing: a case study in the healthcare system

      Shah, Syed Aziz; Ren, Aifeng; Fan, Dou; Zhang, Zhiya; Zhao, Nan; Yang, Xiaodong; Luo, Ming; Wang, Weigang; Hu, Fangming; Ur-Rehman, Masood; et al. (MDPI, 2018-03-27)
      Medical healthcare is one of the fascinating applications using Internet of Things (IoTs). The pervasive smart environment in IoTs has the potential to monitor various human activities by deploying smart devices. In our pilot study, we look at narcolepsy, a disorder in which individuals lose the ability to regulate their sleep-wake cycle. An imbalance in the brain chemical called orexin makes the sleep pattern irregular. This sleep disorder in patients suffering from narcolepsy results in them experience irrepressible sleep episodes while performing daily routine activities. This study presents a novel method for detecting sleep attacks or sleepiness due to immune system attacks and affecting daily activities measured using the S-band sensing technique. The S-Band sensing technique is channel sensing based on frequency spectrum sensing using the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing transmission at a 2 to 4 GHz frequency range leveraging amplitude and calibrated phase information of different frequencies obtained using wireless devices such as card, and omni-directional antenna. Each human behavior induces a unique channel information (CI) signature contained in amplitude and phase information. By linearly transforming raw phase measurements into calibrated phase information, we ascertain phase coherence. Classification and validation of various human activities such as walking, sitting on a chair, push-ups, and narcolepsy sleep episodes are done using support vector machine, K-nearest neighbor, and random forest algorithms. The measurement and evaluation were carried out several times with classification values of accuracy, precision, recall, specificity, Kappa, and F-measure of more than 90% that were achieved when delineating sleep attacks.
    • A low profile antenna for millimeter-wave body-centric applications

      Ur-Rehman, Masood; Malik, Nabeel A.; Yang, Xiaodong; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Zhang, Zhiya; Zhao, Nan; University of Bedfordshire; Xidian University; University of Glasgow (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-05-03)
      Millimeter-Wave (mm-Wave) frequencies are a front runner contender for the next generation body-centric wireless communications. In this paper, the design of a very low-profile antenna is presented for body-centric applications operating in the mm-Wave frequency band centered at 60 GHz. The antenna has an overall size of 14 × 10.5 × 1.15 mm3 and is printed on a flexible printed circuit board. The performance of the antenna is evaluated in off-body, on-body, and body-to-body communication scenarios using a realistic numerical phantom and verified through measurements. The antenna has a bandwidth of 9.8 GHz and offers a gain of 10.6 dBi in off-body (free space) configuration, while 12.1 dBi in on-body configuration. It also achieves an efficiency of 74% in off-body and 63% in on-body scenario. The small and flexible structure of the antenna along with excellent impedance matching, broad bandwidth, high gain, and good efficiency makes it a suitable candidate to attain simultaneous data transmission/reception at mm-Wave frequencies for the 5G body-centric applications.
    • A low profile antenna for millimetre-wave body-centric applications

      Ur-Rehman, Masood; Malik, Nabeel A.; Yang, Xiaodong; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Xidian University (IEEE, 2017-09-27)
      Millimetre-Wave frequencies are a front runner contender for the next generation body-centric wireless communications. In this paper, design of a very low profile antenna is presented for body-centric applications operating in the millimetre-wave frequency band centred at 60 GHz. The antenna has an overall size of 14£10.5£1.15 mm3 and is printed on a flexible printed circuit board. The performance of the antenna is evaluated in off-body, on-body and body-to-body communication scenarios using a realistic numerical phantom and verified through measurements. The antenna has a bandwidth of 9.8 GHz and offers a gain of 10.6 dBi in off-body (free space) configuration while 12.1 dBi in on-body configuration. It also acheives an efficiency of 74% in off-body and 63% in on-body scenario. The small and flexible structure of the antenna along with excellent impedance matching, broad bandwidth, high gain and good efficiency makes it a suitable candidate to attain simultaneous data transmission/reception at millimetre-wave frequencies for the 5G body-centric applications.
    • A low profile penta-band antenna for portable devices

      Shameem, Usama; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Qaraqe, Khalid; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; University of Bedfordshire; Texas A & M University, Qatar (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-03-17)
      Recent years have seen a rapid growth of portable wireless communication systems. Limited form factor and operation at multiple frequencies of these devices require novel solutions of efficient embedded antennas. It has increased the demand of microstrip patch antennas due to their inherent properties of being low profile, simple design, small size and ease of fabrication and integration. Miniaturisation requirements have seen rise of multiband patch antennas. This paper presents the design and analysis of a novel multiband microstrip patch antenna. The antenna consists of a rectangular slot with two E-shaped stubs on both of its sides. An inverted T-shaped stub is present on the upper side of the slot while an I-shaped stub is there on the bottom side. A T-shaped feeding line feeds the antenna. The slot, stubs and feed collectively produce five frequency bands centred at 1.5 GHz, 2.2 GHz, 3.1 GHz, 4.2 GHz and 5.3 GHz for LTE/4G/5G, WiBro/WiMax, Satcomm and WLAN applications. The antenna offers small size, good impedance bandwidth and high gain at all operating frequencies.
    • Millimetre-wave antennas and systems for the future 5G

      Ur-Rehman, Masood; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Rahman, Atiqur; Khan, Imdad; Chattha, Hassan Tariq; Abdul Matin, Mohammad; University of Bedfordshire; Texas A & M University at Qatar; University of Glasgow; North South University, Dhaka; et al. (Hindawi, 2017-04-10)
      Editorial of the special issue on Millimetre-Wave Antennas and Systems for the Future 5G
    • Miniature implantable antenna design for blood glucose monitoring

      Ahmed, Ayesha; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; University of Bedfordshire; University of Glasgow (IEEE, 2018-05-24)
      In this paper, a miniaturised implantable antenna with the dimensions of 8×8×1 mm 3 has been studied for continuous monitoring of Blood Glucose Levels (BGL). The antenna performance is analysed numerically for both free space and implanted operation. It has the lowest resonant frequency of 3.58 GHz in free space with a gain 1.18 GHz while operates at 2.58 GHz with a gain of 4.18 dBi when implanted. Good performance and small size make it a good for implantable glucose monitoring devices.
    • Nano-ferrite near-field microwave imaging for in-body applications

      Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Ren, Aifeng; Qing, Maojie; Zhao, Nan; Wang, Mingming; Gao, Ge; Yang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhiya; Hu, Fangming; Ur-Rehman, Masood; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2018-06-04)
      In recent years, nanotechnology has become indispensable in our lives, especially in the medical field. The key to nanotechnology is the perfect combination of molecular imaging and nanoscale probes. In this paper, we used iron oxide nanoparticles as a nanoprobe because it is widely used in clinical MRI and other molecular imaging techniques. We built our own experimental environment and used absorbing materials during the whole experiment to avoid electromagnetic interference with the surroundings. Moreover, we repeated the experiment many times to exclude the influence of contingency. Hence, the experimental data we obtained were relatively precise and persuasive. Finally, the results demonstrated that the iron oxide nanoparticles were appropriate for use as contrast agents in biological imaging.
    • The road ahead for body-centric wireless communication and networks

      Ur-Rehman, Masood; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Alomainy, Akram; University of Bedfordshire; Texas A & M University at Qatar; University of Engineering and Technology, Pakistan; Queen Mary University of London (Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2015-02-26)
      Wireless interaction of the human user with the computing devices has seen a profound growth in the past decade. Wearable technology has successfully moved past the adoption stage and now stands at the brink of massive diversification with an explosion in popularity and applicability. The estimated market value of the wearable technology is expected to hit $32 billion mark by 2020 [1, 2]. It would cause the global wearable devices market it to grow from 20 million device shipments in 2015 to 187.2 million units annually by 2020 [3].
    • Study of a microstrip patch antenna with multiple circular slots for portable devices

      Farooq, Waqas; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Maqbool, Khawaja Qasim; Qaraqe, Khalid; University of Bedfordshire; Texas A & M University, Qatar; Bahria University (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-03-16)
      This paper presents the design and study of a high performance microstrip rectangular patch antenna for the 2.5 GHz ISM band. The proposed antenna make use of small multiple circular slots embedded in the radiator to enhance the performance of the traditional patch antenna. Introduction of the new multi-slot arrangement offers a low profile antenna with reduced size, improved impedance matching, broadband operation. A comparatively wider -10 dB impedance bandwidth of 95 MHz is achieved. The maximum achievable gain is 6.8 dBi.Good performance, light weight, mechanically rugged and inexpensive design make this antenna a potential candidate for wireless portable devices.
    • Study of a novel multi-band antenna for body-centric wireless networks

      Farooq, Waqas; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Yang, Xiaodong; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; University of Bedfordshire; Xidian University; Texas A & M University at Qatar (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-12-07)
      Body-centric wireless networks are used for connectivity between on-body and on-off body communications for various applications for rescue, diagnostics and medical usage. Multiple features of modern portable and wearable devices necessitate antenna operation at a number of frequencies. A compact, low profile and multi-band antenna is presented for body-centric wireless networks in this study. The conventional microstrip rectangular patch antenna has been converted into a multi-band antenna by using layers of mercury and liquid crystal polymer (LCP). The antenna performance in free space and in body-mounted configurations are evaluated and compared using computer simulations. The proposed antenna supports six frequencies for operation at ISM/Wi-Fi/C band. A minimal shift in the operating frequencies while operating in on-body configuration makes this the proposed antenna very resilient to frequency de-tuning caused by the human body presence. The antenna also offers high peak gain values (>7.68 dBi) in the two configurations at all of the operating frequencies.
    • Towards sparse characterisation of on-body ultra-wideband wireless channels

      Yang, Xiaodong; Ren, Aifeng; Zhang, Zhiya; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Alomainy, Akram; Xidian University; University of Bedfordshire; Texas A&M University at Qatar (IET, 2015-07-01)
      With the aim of reducing cost and power consumption of the receiving terminal, compressive sensing (CS) framework is applied to on-body ultra-wideband (UWB) channel estimation. It is demonstrated in this Letter that the sparse on-body UWB channel impulse response recovered by the CS framework fits the original sparse channel well; thus, on-body channel estimation can be achieved using low-speed sampling devices.
    • Ultra wideband antenna diversity characterisation for off-body communications in an indoor environment

      Ur-Rehman, Masood; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Qaraqe, Khalid; Chattha, Hassan Tariq; Alomainy, Akram; Hao, Yang; Parini, Clive G.; Queen Mary College; University of Bedfordshire; University of Engineering and Technology, Pakistan (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2014-11-13)
      In this paper radio channel characterisation and level system modeling for ultra wideband (UWB) in vivo communication is presented at different distances and angle between the the implant and the on-body node. Path loss is calculated for different scenarios and time delay analysis is performed. In addition, UWB-OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) based system modeling is used to calculate the bit error rate (BER) performance. Result shows that BER remains less then 1e-3 for almost all cases up to 40 mm spacing between the implant and on-body node, when Eb/No is above 6 dB.
    • A wearable antenna for mmWave IoT applications

      Ur-Rehman, Masood; Kalsoom, Tahera; Malik, Nabeel A.; Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali; Chatha, Hasan Tariq; Ramzan, Naeem; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; University of Bedfordshire; University of West of Scotland; Islamic University; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019-01-14)
      A compact and flexible millimeter-wave (mmWave) antenna with central resonance frequency of 60 GHz has been designed. The performance of the antenna is evaluated numerically. The antenna exhibits a broad bandwidth of 9.8 GHz with a gain of 9.6 dBi. The antenna also provides good radiation coverage throughout the band of interest achieving a maximum efficiency of 70%. Simple structure, flexible geometry, ease of fabrication and excellent performance make it a well- suited option for body-centric IoT applications.