• Examining the dark tetrad and its links to cyberbullying

      Brown, William Michael; Hazraty, Sana; Palasinski, Marek (Mary Ann Liebert, 2019-07-12)
      Cyberbullying is a growing problem in the fast-evolving world of social media.  Although this problem has been studied extensively, there is relatively little research examining it from the angle of the dark tetrad (i.e., Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, Sadism and Narcissism), especially across different ethnicities.In other words, this research makes original contribution by exploring the predictive ability of the dark tetrad traits in individuals of different ethnicities and their subsequent willingness to engage in cyberbullying.  The study (N=1464) explores whether there is a positive association between the dark tetrad personality traits and cyberbullying.  The results reveal that all four traits predict cyberbullying in participants from across three different ethnicities (Asian, Black and White). Furthermore, female participants score less than their male counterparts across all four traits.  Researchers, academics and legislators might potentially benefit from this research by considering focusing their interventions on helping offenders minimize the display of certain personality traits, thus taking steps towards cyberbullying reduction.  
    • Masculinity, injury and death – implications for anti-knife-carrying messages

      Palasinski, Marek; Brown, William Michael; Shortland, Neil; Riggs, Damian W.; Chen, Minsi; Bowman-Grieve, Lorraine (SAGE, 2019-01-18)
      Although knives are the most common homicide instrument in Britain, factors that influence knife-carrying tolerance (i.e., the extent to which it is seen as acceptable and justified) and perceptions of anti-knife messages (i.e., slogans and posters aimed at reducing knife crime) have not been examined, which the current paper will cover by featuring progressively related studies.  In Study 1, 227 men took part in a study on factors associated with knife-carrying.  In Study 2, 200 participants took part in an experimental study on anti-knife slogans.  In Study 3, 169 men took part in a study on existing anti-knife injury posters.  In Study 4, 151 men took part in a study on anti-knife CGI posters.  Study 1 proposes a structural equation model that shows the inter-correlations between physical defence ability, limited trust in authority, limited control over one’s status and the need for respect, and how they predict aggressive masculinity (i.e. macho culture), which, in turn, predicts knife-carrying tolerance.  The model also reveals two significant latent factors: saving face inter-male competition (i.e., honor) and perceived social ecological constraints (i.e., socio-economic limitations).  Study 2 shows that the injury slogan was rated as most persuasive.  Study 3 shows that the fresh injury poster was rated as most persuasive, emotional and believable.  Study 4 shows that it was the eye injury that was rated as most persuasive, emotional and believable. The paper supports protection motivation theory and offers practical insights into tackling knife crime.