• Changes of synovial fluid protein concentrations in supra-patellar bursitis patients after the injection of different molecular weights of hyaluronic acid

      Chen, Carl P.C.; Hsu, Chin Chin; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Ruoli; Zhou, Shaobo; Shen, Hsuan-Chen; Lin, Shih-Cherng; Tsai, Wen-Chung; ; Chang Gung University; et al. (Elsevier, 2014-01-30)
      Knee pain is commonly seen in orthopedic and rehabilitation outpatient clinical settings, and in the aging population. Bursitis of the knee joint, especially when the volume of the synovial fluid is large enough, can compress and distend the nearby soft tissues, causing pain in the knee joint. Out of all the bursae surrounding the knee joint, supra-patellar bursitis is most often associated with knee pain. Treatment strategies in managing supra-patellar bursitis include the aspiration of joint synovial fluid and then followed by steroid injection into the bursa. When supra-patellar bursitis is caused by degenerative disorders, the concept of viscosupplementation treatment may be effective by injecting hyaluronic acid into the bursa. However, the rheology or the changes in the concentrations of proteins (biomarkers) that are related to the development of bursitis in the synovial fluid is virtually unexplored. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the concentration changes in the synovial fluid total protein amount and individual proteins associated with supra-patellar bursitis using the Bradford protein assay and western immunoglobulin methods. A total of 20 patients were divided into two groups with 10 patients in each group. One group received the high molecular weight hyaluronic acid product of Synvisc Hylan G-F 20 and the other group received the low molecular weight hyaluronic acid product of Hya-Joint Synovial Fluid Supplement once per week injection into the bursa for a total of 3. weeks. Significant decreases in the synovial fluid total protein concentrations were observed after the second dosage of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid injections. Apolipoprotein A-I, interleukin 1 beta, alpha 1 antitrypsin, and matrix metalloproteinase 1 proteins revealed a trend of decreasing western immunoblotting band densities after hyaluronic acid injections. The decreases in apolipoprotein A-I and interleukin 1 beta protein band densities were significant in the high molecular weight hyaluronic acid injection group. Transthyretin, complement 5, and matrilin 3 proteins revealed a trend of increasing western immunoblotting band densities after hyaluronic acid injections. Transthyretin revealed significant increases in protein band densities in both the high and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid injection groups. This study may provide the rationale for targeting several biomarkers associated with lipid transport, inflammation, and anti-aging as possible disease modifying therapies for the treatment of supra-patellar bursitis and even degenerative joint disorders. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
    • Proteomic analysis of age-related changes in ovine cerebrospinal fluid

      Chen, Carl P.C.; Preston, Jane E.; Zhou, Shaobo; Fuller, Heidi R.; Morgan, David G.A.; Chen, Ruoli; King’s College London; Chang Gung University; University of Bedfordshire; RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-04-21)
      Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulates through the brain and has a unique composition reflecting the biological processes of the brain. Identifying ageing CSF biomarkers can aid in understanding the ageing process and interpreting CSF protein changes in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, ovine CSF proteins from young (1-2 year old), middle aged (3-6 year old) and old (7-10 year old) sheep were systemically studied. CSF proteins were labelled with iTRAQ tagging reagents and fractionated by 2-dimensional high performance, liquid chromatography. Tryptic peptides were identified using MS/MS fragmentation ions for sequencing and quantified from iTRAQ reporter ion intensities at m/z 114, 115, 116 and 117. Two hundred thirty one peptides were detected, from which 143 proteins were identified. There were 52 proteins with >25% increase in concentrations in the old sheep compared to the young. 33 of them increased >25% but <50%, 13 increased >50% but <1 fold, 6 increased >1 fold [i.e. haptoglobin (Hp), haemoglobin, neuroendocrine protein 7B2, IgM, fibrous sheath interacting protein 1, vimentin]. There were 18 proteins with >25% decrease in concentrations in the old sheep compared to the young. 17 of them decreased >25% but <50%, and histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) was gradually decreased for over 80%. Glutathione S-transferase was decreased in middle aged CSF compared to both young and old CSF. The differential expressions of 3 proteins (Hp, neuroendocrine protein 7B2, IgM) were confirmed by immunoassays. These data expand our current knowledge regarding ovine CSF proteins, supply the necessary information to understand the ageing process in the brain and provide a basis for diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.