• Cabbalistic cases: demystifying generalizability

      Deigh, Linda; Farquhar, Jillian Dawes; London Metropolitan University; University of Bedfordshire (2015-07-01)
      Case study research is concerned with in-depth and within context knowledge which is generated empirically. As such it is well suited to address complex marketing problems thus advancing theory in the discipline. In spite of these benefits, case studies are rarely published in marketing journals thus depriving the discipline of rich insights and opportunities to build new theory. This relatively poor showing of case study research may be attributable to a perceived lack of rigour with one particular criticism being that case study findings are not generalizable. This paper sets out to investigate the generalizability ‘problem’ in case study research. It finds that strategic case selection and specificity in the bounding of cases enable the findings of a study to be extended to similar contexts and generalized to theory.
    • Call blocking and outage probability in energy-efficient LTE networks

      Kanwal, Kapil; Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali; Rehman, Masood Ur; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2018-04-19)
      Mobile operators are continuously expanding network infrastructure through the deployment of additional base stations to satisfy ever growing user demands. In parallel, number of users is also increasing due to advancement in mobile applications. Enlarged number of users and base stations introduce major problems, such as call blocking and outage probability, due to limited resources and interference caused by frequency reuse, respectively. Both these parameters play a key role in estimation of overall system performance. Alongside, energy efficiency (EE) is a vital parameter to enable portability and longevity of mobile user equipment. This paper investigates call blocking and channel outage probability in reduced early handover (REHO) deployed Long‐Term Evolution networks. System level simulations are performed in MATLAB to analyze the performance of REHO before it is compared with Long‐Term Evolution standard and other state of the art for key performance‐related parameters including EE, outage probability, and call blocking probability. Besides increased EE, REHO is also found to be competitive enough in terms of call blocking probability in the presence of Poisson process call arrivals.
    • Calling time: addressing ageism and age discrimination in alcohol policy, practice and research

      Wadd, Sarah; Holley-Moore, George; Riaz, Amna; Jones, Rebecca; Drink Wise, Age Well; University of Bedfordshire; International Longevity Centre (Drink Wise, Age Well, 2017-12-04)
      This report reveals evidence of age discrimination in alcohol policy, practice and research.  The findings are based on a survey of professionals, interviews and focus groups with older adults with alcohol problems and a summative review of relevant policy and published literature.
    • CAM within a field force of countervailing powers: the case of Portugal

      Almeida, Joana; Gabe, Jonathan; Royal Holloway, University of London (Elsevier, 2016-03-03)
      This paper examines the extent to which the position of the medical profession and the state towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners has changed since the late 1990s, taking Portugal as a case study. Using Light’s concept of countervailing powers we consider the alliances, interests, rhetorics and degrees of control between these three actors over time, focusing particularly on the extent to which CAM practitioners have acted as a countervailing force in their relationship with the medical profession and the state. It also brings to the fore the position of supra-state agencies concerning CAM regulation. A critical discourse analysis was conducted on data derived from a systematic search of information from the late 1990s until 2015. Our analysis suggests that CAM has emerged as an active player and a countervailing power in that it has been a significant influence in shaping state policy-making. The medical profession, in turn, has changed from rejecting to ‘incorporating’ CAM while the state has acted has a ‘broker’, trying to accommodate the demands and preferences of both actors while simultaneously demonstrating its power and autonomy in shaping health policy. In sum, the history of countermoves of CAM, the medical profession and the state in recasting power relations regarding CAM regulation in Portugal has highlighted the explanatory value of Light’s countervailing power theory and the need to move away from a professional dominance and corporatist approach where CAM has simply been seen as subjugated to the power of the medical profession and the state.
    • The cAMP pathway is important for controlling the morphological switch to the pathogenic yeast form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

      Chen, Daliang; Janganan, Thamarai K.; Chen, Gongyou; Marques, Everaldo R.; Kress, Marcia R.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Walmsley, Adrian R.; Borges-Walmsley, Maria Ines; University of Durham; Universidade de Sao Paulo (Wiley, 2007-08-30)
      Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a human pathogenic fungus that switches from a saprobic mycelium to a pathogenic yeast. Consistent with the morphological transition being regulated by the cAMP-signalling pathway, there is an increase in cellular cAMP levels both transiently at the onset (< 24 h) and progressively in the later stages (> 120 h) of the transition to the yeast form, and this transition can be modulated by exogenous cAMP. We have cloned the cyr1 gene encoding adenylate cyclase (AC) and established that its transcript levels correlate with cAMP levels. In addition, we have cloned the genes encoding three Galpha (Gpa1-3), Gbeta (Gpb1) and Ggamma (Gpg1) G proteins. Gpa1 and Gpb1 interact with one another and the N-terminus of AC, but neither Gpa2 nor Gpa3 interacted with Gpb1 or AC. The interaction of Gpa1 with Gpb1 was blocked by GTP, but its interaction with AC was independent of bound nucleotide. The transcript levels for gpa1, gpb1 and gpg1 were similar in mycelium, but there was a transient excess of gpb1 during the transition, and an excess of gpa1 in yeast. We have interpreted our findings in terms of a novel signalling mechanism in which the activity of AC is differentially modulated by Gpa1 and Gpb1 to maintain the signal over the 10 days needed for the morphological switch.
    • Can a values reframing of ISO14001:2015 finally give business an effective tool to tackle climate change

      Williams, Sarah (Emerald, 2018-09-05)
      Purpose: This chapter argues that the revised ISO 14001:2015 environmental standard for business constitutes a fundamental reframing of business engagement with environmental management.   Design: Drawing on the values framework of Shalom Schwartz, it is demonstrated how the revised standard represents a values shift away from self-limiting approaches based on power, control and conformity. Instead, the revised standard frames environmental management into the language of achievement and openness where managers are encouraged to work together, make a difference, lead, inspire, engage and find innovative and creative solutions.   Findings: Drawing on empirical research with SME managers, the significance of this values reframing is illustrated. Managers drawing on power and conformity to engage with environmental actions tended to focus on short-term actions that demonstrated quick financial pay back or reputations wins. This is contrasted with managers drawing on achievement and self-direction values who took a longer-term view to making a difference and working with others to find innovative solutions to complex problems. Originality and Value: It is posited that this reframing represents a significant opportunity for business generally and for the environmental profession specifically to develop the skills and approaches required to tackle climate change and other sustainability related concerns. 
    • Can an intervention in general practice increase sign-up rates to the NHS Organ Donor Register? a feasibility randomised controlled trial

      Penn-Jones, Catrin Pedder; Papadopoulos, Chris; Randhawa, Gurch; Asghar, Zeeshan; University of Bedfordshire; NHS Blood and Transplant (2017-09-06)
    • Can distance learning become an affective mode of delivery?

      Beckwith, Philip; Sapsed, Susan; University of Bedfordshire (Chinese American Scholars Association, 2007-01-01)
      The term blended learning is becoming more prevalent in the fields of Health and Social Sciences. Although it tends to be synonymous with e-learning; this should not be the case as blended learning involves an integrated delivery strategy. Rossett et al. (2003) suggest that this could include interaction with a supervisor; participation in an online class; breakfast with colleagues; competency descriptions; reading on the beach; reference to a manual; collegial relationships; and participation in seminars, workshops, and online communities. This paper will attempt to explore whether the integration of the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) to a traditionally taught masters programme through the development of a blended learning strategy, can facilitate its evolution to distance learning.
    • Can environmental investments benefit environmental performance? the moderating roles of institutional environment and foreign direct investment

      Li, Ruiqian; Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2020-07-06)
      Contribution of environmental investments (EI) to environmental performance (EP) is a lively topic for environmental researchers across the world. In spite of huge amount of research, there is still lack of clarity on the moderating factors that affect the role played by EI. In this study, we distinguish EI into pollution control investments (PCI) and pollution prevention investments (PPI). We further investigate whether institutional environment and foreign direct investment (FDI) can play their moderating effects both on the relationship between EI and EP and on the relationships between different types of investments and EP or not. The results indicate that EI has a positive effect on EP. More specifically, PPI plays a stronger positive role in EP, but PCI does not have a significant effect on EP. In addition, both institutional environment and FDI can strengthen the positive impact of EI on EP. The increase of EI in regions with better institutional environment or high FDI can lead to greater improvement in EP. These moderating effects of institutional environment and FDI are also confirmed on the link between PPI and EP. In summary, our results reinforce the existing views that EI, and specifically PPI, can improve EP, but further contribute to the understanding of the positive moderating roles played by the institutional environment and FDI on the link between EI and EP.
    • Can physical activity support grief outcomes in individuals who have been bereaved? a systematic review

      Williams, Jane; Shorter, Gillian; Howlett, Neil; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire; Queen’s University Belfast; University of Hertfordshire (Springer, 2021-03-06)
      Background: In 2018, there were 616,014 registered deaths in the United Kingdom (UK). Grief is a natural consequence. Many mental health concerns, which can be identified as grief outcomes (e.g. anxiety and depression) in those who have experienced a bereavement, can be improved through physical activity. The objective of this review was to identify from the existing literature if physical activity can benefit grief outcomes in individuals who have been bereaved. Methods: A systematic review of nine databases was performed. Included studies (qualitative and quantitative) explored physical activity to help individuals (of any age) who had experienced a human bereavement (excluding national loss). Results: From 1299 studies screened, 25 met the inclusion criteria, detailing eight types of bereavement (parental (n=5), spousal (n=6), patient (n=4), pre-natal (n=3), later life (n=1), caregiver (n=1), multiple (n=4) and non-defined (n=1). Activities including yoga, running, walking, and martial arts were noted as beneficial. Physical activity allowed a sense of freedom, to express emotions, provided a distraction, and an escape from grief, while enhancing social support. Conclusion: There is some evidence that physical activity may provide benefit for the physical health and psychological wellbeing of those who have been bereaved, including when the loss has happened at a young age. This review is timely, given the wide-scale national loss of life due to COVID-19 and extends knowledge in this area. More research is needed to explore the benefits of physical activity for those who have been bereaved. In particular there is a need for well-designed interventions which are tailored to specific activities, populations and grief outcomes.
    • Can physical activity support young people after the death of a parent? the BABYSTEPs project

      Chater, Angel M.; Williams, Jane; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Howlett, Neil; Shorter, Gillian; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hertfordshire; Ulster University (2019-09-10)
      Background: Annually, 41,000 UK children and young people are parentally bereaved. Grief is an individual process and must be supported properly.  Many mental health aspects that cross over with grief outcomes (i.e. anxiety and depression) can be improved through physical activity. Yet there is limited research investigating whether physical activity can support bereaved individuals with their grief and what services are currently available. Methods: A systematic review of the literature (10 databases) and service provision (5 search engines) was performed.  Empirical studies (qualitative and quantitative) had to explore physical activity (of any type) to help individuals (of any age) who had experienced a bereavement (of any human, other than national loss).  Organisations which provide bereavement support to young people were contacted (via questionnaire and telephone) to record details about their service and if they offer physical activity support. Results: From 564 studies screened, 20 met the inclusion criteria, with 5 reporting using physical activity to support parental bereavement.  Running and martial arts were noted as types of beneficial activity.  Of the 373 organisations identified, 26 provided physical activity support (i.e. residential retreats, football) for bereaved young people.  Conclusion: There is evidence that physical activity can support the wellbeing of young people who have been parentally bereaved.  However, this evidence is limited, with just a small number of organisations offering physical activity.  There is a clear need for more research and services to understand and increase the use of physical activity to support young people following the death of their parent.
    • Can sustainable water monitoring be a reality?

      Ajmal, Tahmina; Guimares, Laura; Genthe, Bettina; Rivett, Ulrike; University of Bedfordshire; University of Porto; Water Resources - CSIR; University of Cape Town (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-05-13)
      In this paper, authors discuss the current methods used for surface water monitoring and the gaps left in monitoring in context of a low resourced area. Water quality monitoring [1] is a complex problem that can only be tackled through a systemic application of a transdisciplinary approach. This paper suggests use of a variety of innovative solutions adapted to the local conditions encouraging the prospect of sustainability. The approach relies on an emphasis on environmental and water quality for human life that will contribute to: 1) improved capacity building of local actors, including the role of women; 2) increased economic and social well-being at local and regional levels; and 3) protect natural capital in the region. This article reviews the state of water monitoring in low resourced area, example is taken here from Southern Arica and attempts to establish a sustainable water quality monitoring plan for application to cross-boundary water resources in the region. These are essential to diagnose and raise understanding on water quality problems in resources shared by countries with contrasting development levels. The innovative vision presented here proposes to resolve this multidimensional water quality problem by considering the broader system ranging from aquatic ecosystems providing this service to supply systems serving final consumers.
    • Can we fix education? living emancipatory pedagogy in Higher Education

      Clack, Jim (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-26)
      This paper discusses a 12-week, 15-credit module taught to second year undergraduates during semester 2 of 2017–18 academic year. The module, entitled ‘Deschooling’, aimed to explore notions of emancipatory and critical pedagogy, control and coercion in the education system. Rather than ‘teach’ these concepts as abstract academic theory, I aimed to provide students with ‘lived’ experiences of them. That is, the aim was to provide a ‘deschooled’, ‘unoppressed’ experience for students by facilitating, so far as possible, democratic decision-making amongst the group. Subsequent reflection on the successes (or otherwise) of the module threw up numerous points. This paper reports on one particular aspect – assessment. As part of the module, students were offered choice over not only how they might be assessed, but also whether or not they should be assessed. This paper then discusses the challenges surrounding critical pedagogy in the HE classroom and considers implications for future practice.
    • Can we reliably measure social work communication skills? development of a scale to measure child and family social work direct practice

      Whittaker, Charlotte E.; Forrester, Donald; Killian, Mike; Jones, Rebecca (European Scientific Association on Residential & Family Care for Children and Adolescents, 2017-01-01)
      Few attempts have been made to define and measure the effectiveness of social work communication skills. This paper describes a coding scheme for rating seven dimensions of skilled communication in child and family social work practice and presents an empirical evaluation of whether the dimensions can be coded for reliably. Four dimensions of skill were adapted from the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) code. A further three dimensions, primarily related to appropriate use of authority, were developed in consultation with key stakeholders. The seven dimensions were used to score 133 audio recordings of direct practice. Of these, 28 (21%) were scored by three independent raters in order to test inter-rater reliability (IRR). IRR was assessed using Krippendorff’s α and Intra-class correlation (ICC). Results indicate that it is possible to reliably measure key elements of skilled communication, with Krippendorff’s α scores ranging from .461 (good) to .937 (excellent) and ICC ranging from .731 (good) to .967 (excellent). Establishing reliability provides a foundation for exploring the validity of the measure and the relationship between these skills and outcomes, as well as for further research looking at the impact of training, supervision or other methods of professional development on skills in practice. The problems and potential contribution of using such an approach are discussed. 
    • Cannabis use and abstention in first-episode psychosis: the participants’ view

      Seddon, Jennifer L.; Copello, Alex; Birchwood, Max (Taylor & Francis, 2012-02-13)
      Cannabis use has been identified as a prognostic factor for poor outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP). The research aimed to understand the factors that motivate or inhibit the use of cannabis in people with first-episode psychosis. Thirty first-episode psychosis patients (18 cannabis users and 12 abstainers) were interviewed using qualitative semi-structured methods in order to investigate the self reported factors perceived to influence cannabis abstention, initiation, continued use and consumption change. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using grounded theory based methods. Psychosis specific reasons were not found to be motivationally salient for the initiation or continued use of cannabis, but were found to be important for decreased consumption and cessation. Mental health concerns, such as the impact of cannabis on relapse and psychotic symptom exacerbation were also found to motivate abstention. Psychosis related reasons do not appear to motivate the initial or continued use of cannabis, although thedeleterious effect of cannabis to mental health may promote decreased cannabis consumption, cessation and abstinence following the onset of psychosis. Therefore substance use early interventions for this population should aim to increase emphasis on the potential harms of cannabis to mental health.
    • Cannabis use is associated with increased psychotic symptoms and poorer psychosocial functioning in first-episode psychosis: a report from the UK National EDEN Study

      Seddon, Jennifer L.; Birchwood, Max; Copello, Alex; Everard, Linda; Jones, Peter B.; Fowler D; Amos, Tim; Freemantle, Nick; Sharma, Vimal; Marshall, Max; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2015-11-04)
      OBJECTIVE: The use of cannabis during the early stage of psychosis has been linked with increased psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to examine the use of cannabis in the 12 months following a first-episode of psychosis (FEP) and the link with symptomatic course and outcome over 1 year post psychosis onset. DESIGN AND SETTING: One thousand twenty-seven FEP patients were recruited upon inception to specialized early intervention services (EIS) for psychosis in the United Kingdom. Participants completed assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: The results indicate that the use of cannabis was significantly associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms, mania, depression and poorer psychosocial functioning. Continued use of cannabis following the FEP was associated with poorer outcome at 1 year for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score, negative psychotic symptoms, depression and psychosocial functioning, an effect not explained by age, gender, duration of untreated psychosis, age of psychosis onset, ethnicity or other substance use. CONCLUSION: This is the largest cohort study of FEP patients receiving care within EIS. Cannabis use, particularly "continued use," was associated with poorer symptomatic and functional outcome during the FEP. The results highlight the need for effective and early intervention for cannabis use in FEP.
    • Capture and sorting of multiple cells by polarization-controlled three-beam interference

      Hou, Yu; Wang, Zuobin; Hu, Yaowei; Li, Dayou; Qiu, Renxi; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-02-02)
      For the capture and sorting of multiple cells, a sensitive and highly efficient polarization-controlled three-beam interference set-up has been developed. With the theory of superposition of three beams, simulations on the influence of polarization angle upon the intensity distribution and the laser gradient force change with different polarization angles have been carried out. By controlling the polarization angle of the beams, various intensity distributions and different sizes of dots are obtained. We have experimentally observed multiple optical tweezers and the sorting of cells with different polarization angles, which are in accordance with the theoretical analysis. The experimental results have shown that the polarization angle affects the shapes and feature sizes of the interference patterns and the trapping force.
    • Capturing debriefing and enhancing reflection within simulated clinical learning environments

      Wareing, Mark; England, Jacqueline A.; Mathew, David; Ball, Carla; Willetts, Amanda; Kemp, Jane; Clifford, Kelly; Thompson, Andrea; Dove, Ian; Adams, Louise; et al. (National Association of Educators in Practice, 2020-05-05)
      This article presents findings from an evaluation of a new A3-size learner notes sheet designed for use by healthcare students engaging in clinical simulation and clinical skills sessions. The notes sheet consists of an adapted form of the SBAR (situation, background, assessment, response) tool, whilst capturing post-simulation oral debriefing provided by a facilitator. Additionally, the Driscoll (2007) model is used to provide students with an opportunity to reflect on their engagement in clinical simulation. Two cohorts of students, who engaged in separate simulation sessions, completed the A3 sheet. The study featured 33 midwifery and 21 operating department practitioner (ODP) students undertaking a simulation. Documentary analysis was undertaken to identify the depth of reflective writing of both groups of students. Midwifery student participants reflected on their experiences of simulation at a slightly deeper level than their ODP counterparts. All students adhered to the structure of the notes sheet when receiving their briefing from the facilitator and when asked to write their reflective accounts. This study has sought to explore an under-researched area of clinical simulation: the extent to which healthcare students can utilise reflection when engaging with a clinical scenario within a simulated learning environment.
    • Cardiometabolic response to a single high-intensity interval exercise session versus breaking up sedentary time with fragmented high-intensity interval exercise

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Orton, Charlie J.; Maylor, Benjamin D.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K. (Thieme, 2019-02-04)
      This study compared the effects of interrupting prolonged sedentary time with high-intensity physical activity (SED-ACT), a volume and duration-matched high-intensity interval exercise session followed by prolonged sedentary time (HIIE), and prolonged uninterrupted sedentary time (SED) on postprandial glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations. Twelve sedentary and inactive, but otherwise healthy, adults completed three, 6.5 h conditions in an incomplete counterbalanced order. During SED, participants sat continuously. For HIIE, participants completed 10 x 60 s cycling bouts at 90% maximum oxygen update (V̇O2max) with 1 min active recovery between bouts. In SED-ACT, 60 s cycling bouts at 90% V̇O2max were completed every 30 min (10 times in total) with 30 s of active recovery immediately before and after. Standardised meals were consumed at 0 h and 3 h and capillary blood samples were collected fasted and every 30 min. Compared with SED, postprandial glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was significantly lower in SED-ACT by 1.91 mmol/L∙6.5 h (p=0.022) and triglyceride iAUC was significantly lower in HIIE by 1.02 mmol/L∙6.5 h (p=0.030). Interrupting sedentary time with high-intensity physical activity can lower postprandial glucose concentrations, whereas a HIIE session can lower postprandial triglyceride concentrations.
    • Cardiomyocyte contractile force changes in response to AGRWE detected by AFM

      Qu, Yingmin; Zhao, Feihu; Wang, Xinyue; Liu, Jinyun; Li, Jingmei; Song, Zhengxun; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; Eindhoven University of Technology; University of Bedfordshire (The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2019-05-01)
      The cardiac contractile force is an important predictor of healthy and cardiovascular diseases. The changes of cardiomyocyte contractile force in response to American ginseng root water extract (AGRWE) detected by atomic force microscope have not been investigated yet. This study examined the effects of AGRWE on single beating cardiomyocytes extracted from a newborn rat. The same cardiomyocytes were incubated with AGRWE at a concentration of 50 μg/ml for about 30 min, and the cardiomyocytes’ contractile force increased from 1.74 ± 1.01 to 3.49 ± 1.53 nN. The mean value of the contractile strain calculated was 3.32 ± 1.55% for the cardiomyocyte before the treatment with AGRWE, while for the cardiomyocyte treated with AGRWE it increased to 4.60 ± 1.35%. The results also showed that the beating rate of the same single beating cardiomyocytes was decreased from 34 ± 11 beats/min (control, n = 10) to 20 ± 9 beats/min. In conclusion, the experimental results have shown clearly that the contractile forces and strain of single beating cardiomyocytes treated with AGRWE are significantly higher than the control group, while the heart rate was decreased. It suggests that ginseng agents are promising candidates in improving cardiac functions for treating heart failure.