• Gail Kinman 'People need a period of stability, otherwise they may actively resist beneficial change'

      Kinman, Gail (British Psychological Society, 2018-01-31)
      From compassion fatigue and burnout to resilience – Gail Kinman takes Lance Workman through her work as an occupational health psychologist.
    • Gaining competitive advantage from analytics through the mediation of decision-making effectiveness: An empirical study of UK manufacturing companies

      Cao, Guangming; Duan, Yanqing; University of Bedfordshire (Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, 2014-12-31)
      While it is widely believed that analytics capabilities enable a company to identify valuable insights from big data thereby to improve the effectiveness of decision-making and to gain competitive advantage, little empirical research has been undertaken to investigate the mechanisms through which analytics capabilities improve decision-making effectiveness and organisational competitiveness. This paper aims to reduce this research gap in the literature. Drawing on the resource-based view (RBV), it develops a research model to specify the interrelationships among information processing capabilities, resource heterogeneity, decision-making effectiveness, and competitive advantage. It then empirically tests the proposed model using structural equation modelling based on 232 responses collected from UK manufacturing companies. This paper has made several contributions to the research and practice of business analytics and decision-making. First, it advances the literatures by conceptually developing and empirically testing a path model linking information processing capabilities to decision-making effectiveness and competitive advantage. Second, it advances our knowledge by clarifying and testing the mediating role of decision-making effectiveness in affecting the relationship between information processing capabilities and competitive advantage. Third, it extends the RBV and decision-making literatures by explicating and testing the mediating role of resource heterogeneity in affecting the relationship between information processing capabilities and competitive advantage, and between information processing capabilities and decision-making effectiveness. Finally, this paper contributes to managers' and business analytics practitioners' knowledge by demonstrating the importance of improving decision-making effectiveness in gaining competitive advantage.
    • Gamma-tocotrienol stimulates the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

      Xu, Weili; He, Pan; He, Shenghua; Cui, Pengju; Mi, Yaqing; Yang, Yang; Li, Yang; Zhou, Shaobo; Harbin Institute of Technology; Harbin Medical University; et al. (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2018-01-15)
      Gamma-tocotrienol, a major component of tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil, has been suggested to exhibit bone protective effects in vivo. However, the effects of γ-tocotrienol on osteoblast cells are still unclear. In this study, the effects of γ-tocotrienol on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were investigated. Our results showed that γ-tocotrienol (2–8 μmol/L) significantly improved the cell proliferation (), but it did not affect cell cycle progression. γ-Tocotrienol significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (), secretion levels of osteocalcin (OC) and osteonectin (ON), and mRNA levels of collagen type I (Col I) of MC3T3-E1 cells. Meanwhile, we found that γ-tocotrienol is promoted in differentiation MC3T3-E1 cells by upregulation of the expression of Runx2 protein. Moreover, the number of bone nodules increased over 2.5-fold in cells treated with γ-tocotrienol (2–8 μmol/L) for 24 d compared to control group. These results indicated that γ-tocotrienol at low dose levels, especially 4 μmol/L, could markedly enhance the osteoblastic function by increasing the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, our data also indicated that Runx2 protein may be involved in these effects. Further studies are needed to determine the potential of γ-tocotrienol as an antiosteoporotic agent.
    • Ganoderic acid A potentiates antioxidant effect and protection of mitochondrial membrane and reduction the apoptosis rate in primary hippocampal neurons treated with magnesium free medium

      Jiang, Zhi-Mei; Qiu, Hong-Bin; Wang, Shu-Qiu; Guo, J.; Yang, ZW; Zhou, Shaobo; Harbin Medical University; Jiamusi University; University of Bedfordshire (2018-02-01)
    • Gathering evidence of the sexual exploitation of children and young people: a scoping exercise

      Jago, Sue; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2008-06-01)
      The government commissioned this scoping exercise to provide insight into the progress being made to challenge the perpetrators of child sexual exploitation, to report on emerging good practice and to identify the barriers and challenges that local partnerships are facing. The government’s coordinated prostitution strategy responded to the evidence submitted in response to the consultation document, Paying the Price, and recognised that abusers seek out vulnerable children and young people, offering what appears to be affection and friendship. The reality can be that they are manipulated to become so dependent on their abusers that they can be coerced into sexual activity. Research also shows that young people often become sexually exploited as a result of long term social exclusion, poverty and deprivation and that there are complex relationships between sexual exploitation and ‘risk factors’ such as problem drug and alcohol use, poor mental and physical health and previous experiences of abuse. It also shows that boys and young men can be affected as well as girls and young women. Many local partnerships have built up considerable experience in safeguarding victims and developing strategies to help them to move on from exploitative relationships in safety and security.
    • Gender and hierarchy: Archbishop Hincmar of Rheims (845–882) as a religious man

      Stone, Rachel; Lewis, K.J.; Cullum, P.H. (Boydell & Brewer, 2013-01-01)
    • Gender and school-level differences in students' moderate and vigorous physical activity levels when taught basketball through the tactical games model

      Harvey, Stephen; Smith, Megan L.; Song, Yang; Robertson, David; Brown, Renee; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; West Virginia University; University of Bedfordshire (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2016-10-04)
      The Tactical Games Model (TGM) prefaces the cognitive components of physical education (PE), which has implications for physical activity (PA) accumulation. PA recommendations suggest students reach 50% moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). However, this criterion does not indicate the contribution from vigorous physical activity (VPA). Consequently, this study investigated: a) the effects of TGM delivery on MVPA/VPA and, b) gender/school level differences. Participants were 78 seventh and 96 fourth/fifth grade coeducational PE students from two different schools. Two teachers taught 24 (middle) and 30 (elementary) level one TGM basketball lessons. Students wore Actigraph GT3× triaxial accelerometers. Data were analyzed using four one-way ANOVAs. Middle school boys had significantly higher MVPA/VPA (34.04/22.37%) than girls (25.14/15.47%). Elementary school boys had significantly higher MVPA/VPA (29.73/18.33%) than girls (23.03/14.33%). While TGM lessons provide a context where students can accumulate VPA consistent with national PA recommendations, teachers need to modify lesson activities to enable equitable PA participation.
    • Gender differences and similarities in online courses: challenging stereotypical views of women

      Price, Linda; Open University (Wiley-Blackwell, 2006-09-05)
      This paper considers gender differences in online contexts and examines current trends in women's performance, access and experience of online courses. It uses supportive case study examples and specific research into student' academic engagement, conceptions and perceptions of learning support in online environments. The analysis shows that women studying online are confident independent learners who may outperform their male counterparts. They do not have reduced computer and Internet access compared with men, nor are they disinclined to enrol on online courses. They attach greater value to the pastoral aspect of tutoring and have different interaction styles from men, which may have implications for online tutoring support. The gender debate needs to move on from access and performance to the differences and similarities in the degree of importance that men and women place on different interaction and tutoring styles online.
    • Gender roles and the expression of driving anger among Ukrainian drivers

      Sullman, M.J.M.; Stephens, A.N.; Hill, Tetiana; (Wiley, 2016-03-10)
      The current study investigated the validity of the revised (25‐item) version of the driving anger expression inventory (DAX) on a novel sample of 385 drivers from Ukraine. The roles of sex and gender in relation to self‐reported aggressive tendencies were also examined. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four‐factor structure of the DAX (adaptive/constructive expression; use of the vehicle to express anger; verbal aggressive expression; and personal physical aggressive expression), and the three aggressive factors were found to have positive relationships with trait anger and driving anger, while adaptive/constructive expression was negatively related to trait and driving anger. Drivers who reported recent near‐misses or loss of concentration scored higher on verbal aggressive expression. Those who had recently received a traffic ticket also reported higher levels of all three types of aggressive anger expression. Further, the presence of feminine traits, but not sex, predicted more adaptive/constructive behaviors and lower scores for verbal aggressive expression, personal physical aggressive expression, and total aggressive expression. However, masculine traits did not predict any of these factors. This research concludes that the revised DAX is a valid tool to measure the expression of driving anger and that the endorsement of feminine traits is related to less aggressive expression of driving anger.
    • Gender, age and physical activity representation in children's colouring books (Representación del género, la edad y la actividad física en libros para colorear infantiles)

      Martínez Bello, Vladimir; Hill, Joanne; ; Universidad de Valencia; University of Bedfordshire (Revistas Universidad de León, 2020-06-24)
      Despite publishing houses recognizing the importance of ensuring equal representation of all people in curricular materials and scholars also noting their importance in teaching children gendered behaviours, it is still common to find stereotypically gendered non-coeducational curriculum materials in the international market. The aim of this study is to determine the representation of female and male characters in the illustrations of six colouring books published in the United Kingdom entitled “Books for Girls” and “Books for Boys”. A quantitative content analysis, and a supporting qualitative discourse analysis were carried out. This paper examines the effect of constructing gender difference in children’s colouring books. Gender bias in early childhood education poses the risk of perpetuating a manifestation of inequality.
    • Gendering the tourism curriculum whilst becoming an academic

      Jeffrey, Heather; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2017-08-31)
      Pedagogy should be understood as transformative practice, and yet in many cases the neoliberalization and patriarchal structure of higher education institutions can stifle teachers and students. Tourism has been promoted as a vehicle for female empowerment, yet here it is suggested that in order for this to happen, gender must not only be taught in tourism classrooms, but it must be taught adopting a feminist approach. The motivation for this paper is to explore how power dynamics intersect and relate to teaching gender in the tourism classroom in order to highlight potential barriers to gendering the curriculum. Reflexively engaging with my own practice I highlight potential future strategies for academicians.
    • Gene family expansions and contractions are associated with host range in plant pathogens of the genus Colletotrichum

      Baroncelli, Riccardo; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt; Zapparata, Antonio; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Vannacci, Giovanni; Le Floch, Gaétan; Harrison, Richard; Holub, Eric; Sukno, Serenella A.; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy; et al. (BioMed Central, 2016-08-05)
      Many species belonging to the genus Colletotrichum cause anthracnose disease on a wide range of plant species. In addition to their economic impact, the genus Colletotrichum is a useful model for the study of the evolution of host specificity, speciation and reproductive behaviors. Genome projects of Colletotrichum species have already opened a new era for studying the evolution of pathogenesis in fungi. We sequenced and annotated the genomes of four strains in the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex (CAsc), a clade of broad host range pathogens within the genus. The four CAsc proteomes and secretomes along with those representing an additional 13 species (six Colletotrichum spp. and seven other Sordariomycetes) were classified into protein families using a variety of tools. Hierarchical clustering of gene family and functional domain assignments, and phylogenetic analyses revealed lineage specific losses of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and proteases encoding genes in Colletotrichum species that have narrow host range as well as duplications of these families in the CAsc. We also found a lineage specific expansion of necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like protein (NLPs) families within the CAsc. This study illustrates the plasticity of Colletotrichum genomes, and shows that major changes in host range are associated with relatively recent changes in gene content.
    • General Language Proficiency (GLP): reflections on the "issues revisited" from the perspective of a UK examination board

      Taylor, Lynda (Taylor & Francis, 2014-05-21)
      Looking back to the language testing world of the 1980s in the United Kingdom, we need to be aware that how we perceive or remember ourselves to have been then—whether as individual language testing academics or as corporate language testing organisations—will be shaped by multiple influences. Although we may have been present at and shared in the 1980 discussions, our recollections of how things were then and our views on how they have (or have not) changed will vary. What follows in this article offers a predominantly personal perspective. It is the view as I perceive it, in light of my own journey as a UK-based language teacher and tester over the past 30 years, seen from where I stand now as a consultant to a large international examining board in the United Kingdom. It is also therefore an institutional perspective, drawing on a long association with one particular language testing organisation. Just as my perspective is from the position of only one language testing institution, I am also only one individual from within that institution. There will undoubtedly be other stances, voices, and perspectives that are equally valid and relevant from within the same institution.
    • A generalised adoption model for services: a cross-country comparison of mobile health (m-health)

      Dwivedi, Yogesh Kumar; Shareef, Mahmud Akhter; Simintiras, Antonis C.; Lal, Banita; Weerakkody, Vishanth; Swansea University; North South University, Dhaka; McMaster University; Nottingham Trent University; Brunel University (Elsevier, 2015-07-17)
      Which antecedents affect the adoption by users is still often a puzzle for policy-makers. Antecedents examined in this research include technological artefacts from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), consumer context from UTAUT2 and psychological behaviour concepts such as citizens' channel preference and product selection criteria. This research also investigated cultural domination on citizens' behavioural perception. The data for this study was collected among citizens from three countries: USA, Canada, and Bangladesh. The findings suggest that the UTAUT model could partially shape technology artefact behaviour and the extended UTAUT must consider specific determinants relevant to cognitive, affective, and conative or behavioural aspects of citizens. The model helps policy-makers to develop mobile healthcare service system that will be better accepted. The finding also suggests that this mobile service system should reflect a country's cultural traits. These findings basically extend the theoretical concept of UTAUT model to articulate adoption behaviour of any complex and sensitive ICT related issues like mobile healthcare system.
    • Genetic modifications of metallothionein enhance the tolerance and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Escherichia coli

      Li, Xuefen; Ren, Zhumei; Crabbe, M. James C.; Wang, Lan; Ma, Wenli; Shanxi University; University of Oxford; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2021-07-13)
      Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins that bind to metals. Owing to their high cysteine (Cys) content, MTs are effective mediators of heavy metal detoxification. To enhance the heavy metal binding ability of MT from the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense (ShMT), sequence-based multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and structure-based molecular docking simulation (MDS) were conducted in order to identify amino acid residues that could be mutated to bolster such metal-binding activity. Site-directed mutagenesis was then used to modify the primary structure of ShMT, and the recombinant proteins were further enhanced using the SUMO fusion expression system to yield SUMO-ShMT1, SUMO-ShMT2, and SUMO-ShMT3 harboring one-, two-, and three- point mutations, respectively. The resultant modified proteins were primarily expressed in a soluble form and exhibited the ability to readily bind to heavy metals. Importantly, these modified proteins exhibited significantly enhanced heavy metal binding capacities, and they improved Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ tolerance and bioaccumulation in Escherichia coli (E. coli) in a manner dependent upon the number of introduced point mutations (SUMO-ShMT3 > SUMO-ShMT2 > SUMO-ShMT1 > SUMO-ShMT > control). Indeed, E. coli cells harboring the pET28a-SUMO-ShMT3 expression vector exhibited maximal Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ bioaccumulation that was increased by 1.86 ± 0.02-, 1.71 ± 0.03-, and 2.13 ± 0.02-fold relative to that in E. coli harboring the pET28a-SUMO-ShMT vector. The present study offers a basis for the preparation of genetically engineered bacteria that are better able to bioaccumulate and tolerate heavy metals, thus providing a foundation for biological heavy metal water pollution treatment.
    • The genome and transcriptome of Trichormus sp NMC-1: insights into adaptation to extreme environments on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

      Qiao, Qin; Huang, Yanyan; Qi, Ji.; Qu, Mingzhi; Jiang, Chen; Lin, Pengcheng; Li, Renhui; Song, Lirong; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Masami; et al. (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016-07-06)
      The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) has the highest biodiversity for an extreme environment worldwide, and provides an ideal natural laboratory to study adaptive evolution. In this study, we generated a draft genome sequence of cyanobacteria Trichormus sp. NMC-1 in the QTP and performed whole transcriptome sequencing under low temperature to investigate the genetic mechanism by which T. sp. NMC-1 adapted to the specific environment. Its genome sequence was 5.9 Mb with a G+C content of 39.2% and encompassed a total of 5362 CDS. A phylogenomic tree indicated that this strain belongs to the Trichormus and Anabaena cluster. Genome comparison between T. sp. NMC-1 and six relatives showed that functionally unknown genes occupied a much higher proportion (28.12%) of the T. sp. NMC-1 genome. In addition, functions of specific, significant positively selected, expanded orthogroups, and differentially expressed genes involved in signal transduction, cell wall/membrane biogenesis, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and energy production and conversion were analyzed to elucidate specific adaptation traits. Further analyses showed that the CheY-like genes, extracellular polysaccharide and mycosporine-like amino acids might play major roles in adaptation to harsh environments. Our findings indicate that sophisticated genetic mechanisms are involved in cyanobacterial adaptation to the extreme environment of the QTP.
    • Genome sequence of the biocontrol agent coniothyrium minitans conio (IMI 134523)

      Patel, Denise; Shittu, Taiwo Adewale; Baroncelli, Riccardo; Muthumeenakshi, Sreenivasaprasad; Osborne, Thomas H.; Janganan, Thamarai K.; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy; University of Bedfordshire (American Phytopathological Society, 2021-02-16)
      Coniothyrium minitans (synonym, Paraphaeosphaeria minitans) is a highly specific mycoparasite of the wide host range crop pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The capability of C. minitans to destroy the sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum has been well recognized and it is available as a widely used biocontrol product Contans WG. We present the draft genome sequence of C. minitans Conio (IMI 134523), which has previously been used in extensive studies that formed part of a registration package of the commercial product. This work provides a distinctive resource for further research into the molecular basis of mycoparasitism to harness the biocontrol potential of C. minitans.
    • Genome sequence of the mycotoxigenic crop pathogen Fusarium proliferatum strain ITEM 2341 from date palm

      Almiman, Bandar F.; Shittu, Taiwo Adewale; Muthumeenakshi, Sreenivasaprasad; Baroncelli, Riccardo; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy; University of Bedfordshire; University of Salamanca (American Society for Microbiology, 2018-09-06)
      Fusarium proliferatum is a widely distributed fungal pathogen associated with more than 26 crop species important in global food security. Its strong mycotoxigenic capability with potential impacts on human and animal health is well recognized. In this work, we report the draft genome sequence of F. proliferatum strain ITEM 2341, originally isolated from date palm, providing a platform for further comparative and functional genomic investigations.
    • Genome size diversity and its impact on the evolution of land plants

      Pellicer, Jaume; Hidalgo, Oriane; Dodsworth, Steven; Leitch, Ilia J.; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (MDPI AG, 2018-02-14)
      Genome size is a biodiversity trait that shows staggering diversity across eukaryotes, varying over 64,000-fold. Of all major taxonomic groups, land plants stand out due to their staggering genome size diversity, ranging ca. 2400-fold. As our understanding of the implications and significance of this remarkable genome size diversity in land plants grows, it is becoming increasingly evident that this trait plays not only an important role in shaping the evolution of plant genomes, but also in influencing plant community assemblages at the ecosystem level. Recent advances and improvements in novel sequencing technologies, as well as analytical tools, make it possible to gain critical insights into the genomic and epigenetic mechanisms underpinning genome size changes. In this review we provide an overview of our current understanding of genome size diversity across the different land plant groups, its implications on the biology of the genome and what future directions need to be addressed to fill key knowledge gaps.