• Handling difficulties in social, emotional and behaviour development

      Wearmouth, Janice; Cunningham, Laura; Cremin, Teresa; Burnett, Cathy; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2018-03-14)
      This chapter focuses on difficulties experienced by children who demonstrate features of social, emotional and behavioural problems in schools, and ways to minimise the incidence of problematic behaviour. Schools play a critical part in shaping a young child’s identity as a learner (Bruner, 1996). Use of the terms ‘emotional and behavioural difficulties’ (EBD) (Warnock, 1978), or ‘social, emotional and behavioural difficulties’ (SEBD), as a label for some students who behave inappropriately is not always helpful. Poulou and Norwich (2002: 112) conclude, from a review of international studies, that the more teachers think student behaviour stems from problems within those students, such the ‘child’s innate personality’, ‘the more [teachers] may experience feelings of “stress” and even “helplessness” ’, and the less they may feel able to cope with difficult behaviour. The new Teachers’ Standards for Qualified Teacher Status, introduced in England from September 2012 (DfE, 2013), require teachers to take responsibility for promoting good behaviour in classrooms and elsewhere, have high expectations and maintain good relationships with pupils. Teachers can minimise the possibility of poor behaviour in classrooms if they recognise that appropriate behaviour can be taught (Rogers, 2013). Children can learn to make conscious choices about behaviour, even where it is associated with a genetic or neurological condition (Wearmouth, Glynn and Berryman, 2005). The chapter aims to familiarise teachers-in-training with * frames of reference commonly used in schools to research and understand social, emotional and behavioural difficulties, and form the basis for effective responses; * a range of effective responses in relation to these frames of reference; * an understanding that learning environments that are designed to support children to engage with their learning will reduce the possibility of undesirable behaviour in the first place.
    • Hapless, helpless, hopeless: an analysis of stepmothers' talk about their (male) partners

      Roper, Sandra; Capdevila, Rose; University of Bedfordshire; Open University (SAGE, 2020-03-31)
      The identity of stepmother is, in many ways, a troubled one – constructed as “other” and often associated with notions of “wickedness” in literature and everyday talk. This paper reports findings from a study on the difficulties faced by stepmothers and how they use talk about their (male) partners, often constructing men as hapless, helpless or hopeless, to repair their “troubled” identities. The data were collected from a web forum for stepmothers based in the UK and 13 semi-structured face-to-face interviews with stepmothers. The analysis took a synthetic narrative-discursive methodological approach, underpinned by feminist theory with particular attention to the discourses that were drawn on by participants and the constraints that these imposed. This paper presents these findings in relation to three constructions of their partners through which repair work was attempted: men as in need of rescue; men as flawed fathers; and men as damaged. The paper concludes with some suggestions for supporting stepmothers by challenging dominant narratives around families in talk, in the media and in government and institutional policies.
    • Haptoglobin genotype-dependent anti-inflammatory signaling in CD163(+) macrophages

      Landis, R. Clive; Philippidis, Pandelis; Domin, Jan; Boyle, Joseph J.; Haskard, Dorian O.; University of the West Indies; Imperial College London; University of Bedfordshire (Hindawi, 2013-12-31)
      Intraplaque hemorrhage causes adaptive remodelling of macrophages towards a protective phenotype specialized towards handling iron and lipid overload, denoted Mhem. The Mhem phenotype expresses elevated levels of hemoglobin (Hb) scavenger receptor, CD163, capable of endocytosing pro-oxidant free Hb complexed to acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp). It is notable that individuals homozygous for the Hp 2 allele (a poorer antioxidant) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to the Hp 1 allele. In this study, we examined whether scavenging of polymorphic Hp:Hb complexes differentially generated downstream anti-inflammatory signals in cultured human macrophages culminating in interleukin (IL)-10 secretion. We describe an anti-inflammatory signalling pathway involving phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activation upstream of Akt phosphorylation (pSer473Akt) and IL-10 secretion. The pathway is mediated specifically through CD163 and is blocked by anti-CD163 antibody or phagocytosis inhibitor. However, levels of pSer473Akt and IL-10 were significantly diminished when scavenging polymorphic Hp2-2:Hb complexes compared to Hp1-1:Hb complexes (P < 0.05). Impaired anti-inflammatory macrophage signaling through a CD163/pAkt/IL-10 axis may thus represent a possible Hp2-2 disease mechanism in atherosclerosis.
    • “Hard to reach, but not out of reach”: barriers and facilitators to recruiting Black African and Black Caribbean men with prostate cancer and their partners into qualitative research

      Bamidele, Olufikayo; McGarvey, Helen E.; Lagan, Briege M.; Chinegwundoh, Frank; Ali, Nasreen; McCaughan, Ellis; Ulster University; Barts Health NHS Trust; City University of London; University of Bedfordshire (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2018-12-12)
      Access and recruitment barriers may have contributed to the underrepresentation of Black African/Caribbean men and their partners in current psychosocial research related to prostate cancer survivors. Whilst some studies have explored recruitment barriers and facilitators from participants’ perspectives, little is known from researchers' point of view. This paper aimed to address this gap in the literature. Recruitment strategies included the following: cancer support groups, researchers’ networks, media advertisement, religious organisations, National Health Service hospitals and snowball sampling. Thirty-six eligible participants (men = 25, partners = 11) were recruited into the study. Recruitment barriers comprised of gate-keeping and advertisement issues and the stigma associated with prostate cancer disclosure. Facilitators which aided recruitment included collaborating with National Health Service hospitals, snowball sampling, flexible data collection, building rapport with participants to gain their trust and researcher's attributes. Findings highlight that “hard to reach” Black African/Caribbean populations may be more accessible if researchers adopt flexible but strategic and culturally sensitive recruitment approaches. Such approaches should consider perceptions of stigma associated with prostate cancer within these communities and the influence gatekeepers can have in controlling access to potential participants. Increased engagement with healthcare professionals and gatekeepers could facilitate better access to Black African/Caribbean populations so that their voices can be heard and their specific needs addressed within the healthcare agenda.
    • Harmful sexual behaviour in school: a briefing on the findings, implications and resources for schools and multi-agency partners

      Lloyd, Jenny; Walker, Joanne; Bradbury, Vanessa; Contextual Safeguarding Network; University of Bedfordshire (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2020-06-24)
      A briefing that presents findings from a two-year study into harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) in English schools, Beyond Referrals Two. The briefing provides an overview of key thematic findings from the study, organised in relation to: the prevalence of HSB; strengths of responses; disclosure; peer support; parental engagement; and disability and provides 30 recommendations for schools, multi-agency safeguarding partners and the wider field of education.
    • Havering: Face to Face Pathways: final evaluation report

      Bostock, Lisa; Khan, Munira; Munro, Emily; Lynch, Amy; Baker, Claire; Newlands, Fiona; Antonopoulou, Vivi; Tilda Goldberg Centre for Social Work and Social Care, University of Bedfordshire (Department for Education, 2020-07-31)
      F2FP was an ambitious programme of change designed to embed systemic practice across the care pathway for young people on the edge of care, in care and leaving care. The project started in October 2017 and ended in October 2019. Key elements included: • targeted, intensive work through the Families Together team (FTT) with young people on the edge of care and their families to prevent entry to care where appropriate • adapting in-care provision to support 8 systemically trained and intensively supported foster carers (‘pathways carers’) to stabilise placements for children with complex needs and avoid the need to move children to residential care • extending leaving care services to young people aged 14 through to 25 and introducing ‘pathway co-ordinators’ to support access to multi-agency services • ensuring co-production is fully embedded and improving business intelligence to aid analysis, monitoring of progress and ability to better target resources
    • HCAs acquire work experience in a simulated hospital with manikins at the University of Bedfordshire

      Kpodo, Charles; Kemp, Anthony; Adams, Louise; Burden, Barbara (Mark Allen Healthcare, 2015-07-07)
      Healthcare Assistants (HCAs) are important members of the care team. This article looks at how experience in a simulated hospital can enhance their skills. This is achieved in a safe environment where the only consequence of a mistake is learning. The simulated hospital at the University of Bedfordshire is an immersive and fully authentic learning experience. It encapsulates a range of clinical areas that allows HCAs and others to work shifts caring for a range of interactive patients. Through focusing on the First Step Competence Checklist developed by the RCN, the simulated hospital allows HCAs to develop their confidence and competence in their caring skills, while also becoming familiar with the totality of the healthcare environment.
    • Heads of alternative provision: committed to realising young peoples’ potential in an unregulated market

      Malcolm, Andrew David (Taylor & Francis, 2018-05-04)
      Alternative provision (AP) caters for pupils marginalised and excluded from mainstream schooling. In England, it is conceptualised in policy as providing education to support behavioural improvements (pupils are directed off-site to improve behaviour). There is limited research on the experiences of those who work in AP settings. That which does exist tends to report the commitment of these professionals to the young people with whom they work. Young people who attend these schools frequently talk positively about the relationships they experience there. As such, there is a need to better understand the motivations of those working with these young people if we are to understand the key relationships that make AP work. This article fills a gap by focusing on the experiences of those managing AP settings across a geographical area. The findings are based on 3 interviews and 20 surveys and develop significantly our understanding of the motivations of those working in and managing AP settings. Interesting divergences in practice are highlighted and findings show managers both see and work to realise the potential of young people in AP. These findings suggest staff commitment should be conceptualised as belief in the potential of the young people who attend AP.
    • Health behaviour change considerations for weight loss and type 2 diabetes: nutrition, physical activity and sedentary behaviour

      Chater, Angel M.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Ferrandino, Louise; Wyld, Kevin; Bailey, Daniel Paul (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2020-11-30)
      Good nutrition, regular physical activity and low levels of sedentary behaviour are important in the prevention, management and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Self-management requires individuals to have the capability to enact, opportunity to enable and motivation to perform relevant health behaviours. These behaviours, and the bio-psycho-social drivers of them, should be considered when working in the area of T2DM.
    • The health benefits of horse riding in the UK

      Church, Andrew; Taylor, Becky; Maxwell, Neil S.; Gibson, Oliver R.; Twomey, Rosemary (The British Horse Society, 2010-01-01)
      Key findings:The physical health benefits of horse riding and associated activities: 1. Horse riding and activities associated with horse riding, such asmucking out, expend sufficient energy to be classed as moderateintensity exercise. 2. Regular periods of trotting in a riding session may enhance the energyexpended and associated health benefits. 3. More than two thirds (68 percent) of questionnaire respondentsparticipate in horse riding and associated activities for 30 minutes ormore at least three times a week. Sport England estimate that such alevel of sporting activity will help an individual achieve or exceed thegovernment{ extquoteright}s recommended minimum level of physical activity. 4. A range of evidence indicates the vast majority (90 percent plus) ofhorse riders are female and more than a third (37 percent) of the femaleriders who took part in the survey were above 45 years of age. Horseriding is especially well placed to play a valuable role in initiatives toencourage increased physical activity amongst women of all ages. 5. Amongst the horse riders who took part in the survey, 39 percent hadtaken no other form of physical activity in the last four weeks. Thishighlights the importance of riding to these people, who might otherwisebe sedentary. 6. Horse riders with a long-standing illness or disability who took part inthe survey are able to undertake horse riding and associated activitiesat the same self-reported level of frequency and physical intensity asthose without such an illness or disability. The psychological and social benefits of horse riding: 1. Horse riding stimulates mainly positive psychological feelings. 2. Horse riders are strongly motivated to take part in riding by the senseof well-being they gain from interacting with horses. This importantpositive psychological interaction with an animal occurs in a very fewsports. 3. Being outdoors and in contact with nature is an important motivationfor the vast majority of horse riders.
    • Health care providers’ perspectives of disrespect and abuse in maternity care facilities in Nigeria: a qualitative study

      Orpin, Joy; Puthussery, Shuby; Burden, Barbara; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2019-10-31)
      Objectives To explore healthcare providers’ perspectives of disrespect and abuse in maternity care and the impact on women’s health and well-being. Methods Qualitative interpretive approach using in-depth semi-structured interviews with sixteen healthcare providers in two public health facilities in Nigeria. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed thematically. Results Healthcare providers’ accounts revealed awareness of what respectful maternity care encompassed in accordance with the existing guidelines. They considered disrespectful and abusive practices perpetrated or witnessed as violation of human rights, while highlighting women’s expectations of care as the basis for subjectivity of experiences. They perceived some practices as well-intended to ensure safety of mother and baby. Views reflected underlying gender-related notions and societal perceptions of women being considered weaker than men. There was recognition about adverse effects of disrespect and abuse including its impact on women, babies, and providers’ job satisfaction. Conclusions Healthcare providers need training on how to incorporate elements of respectful maternity care into practice including skills for rapport building and counselling. Women and family members should be educated about right to respectful care empowering them to report disrespectful practices.
    • Health impact assessment in Nigeria: an initiative whose time has come

      Chilaka, Marcus A.; Ndioho, Ibiangake; ; University of Bedfordshire; University of Salford (PAGEpress, 2020-03-19)
      Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is increasingly applied in many developed countries as a tool for advancing healthy public policy. This research was carried out to obtain a HIA situation report for Nigeria and to assess ways of enhancing the use of HIA to promote healthy public policy. Semi structured questionnaires were administered both online and by hand to health and nonhealth professionals in Nigeria. Inferential statistics was used in the analysis of the 510 responses that were received. Only 29% of the respondents had ever heard about HIA; similarly, only 19.3% of those who were aware of HIA had received any form of HIA training. However, 93.2% of respondents were convinced that HIA would be beneficial to the Nigerian health system. Using the approach of SWOT Analysis to discuss the findings, this research concludes that the time has now come, and the right conditions are in place, for the integration of Health Impact Assessment into public policy in Nigeria. Raising awareness and political commitment are the two major strategies to help drive this agenda forward.
    • “Health Party” intervention on genetic testing for ethnic minority women: study protocol

      Kabeya, Valencia; Puthussery, Shuby; Furmanski, Anna L. (Oxford University Press, 2019-11-20)
      Background Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to improve the uptake of genetic counselling and testing among ethnically diverse communities. This study aims to assess the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a “Health Party” intervention to increase awareness, knowledge and uptake of genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer among ethnic minority women in the UK. Methods The “Health Party” intervention will include an educational session in a party setting. Participants will be taught by professionals about genetic testing and how to access genetic testing services in the UK National Health Service. We will recruit a sample of 60 women aged 18 years and over from key ethnic minority groups in the UK (Black African, Black Caribbean, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi) and will conduct four community based sessions, each with about 15 participants. The outcomes will primarily relate to recruitment and attrition rates, data collection, study resources and intervention delivery. A quantitative pre-post evaluation with measurements before, shortly after, and at 6 months following the intervention will be conducted to assess the preliminary effectiveness on awareness, knowledge and uptake of genetic testing. We will use three way mixed analysis of variance (MANOVA) to analyse changes pre- and post- intervention. The fidelity of the intervention including facilitation strategies, quality of delivery and participant response will be assessed. Conclusions Findings will establish the feasibility of the intervention and will provide insights into its effectiveness to increase the awareness, knowledge and uptake of genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer among women from ethnic minority groups in the UK. Impact: Depending on its feasibility and effectiveness, the intervention can be used to help women from ethnic minority groups to make informed choices about genetic testing and improve early diagnosis and treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. Key messages “Health Party” may be a feasible intervention for ethnic minority women in the UK. “Health Party” intervention may increase awareness, knowledge and uptake of services.
    • Health psychology and the public health agenda

      Chater, Angel M.; McManus, Jim (British Psychological Society, 2016-01-01)
    • Health psychology, behavioural science, and Covid-19 disease prevention

      Chater, Angel M.; Whittaker, Ellie; Lewis, Lesley; Arden, Madelynne A.; Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Chadwick, Paul; Drury, John; Epton, Tracy; Hart, Jo; Kamal, Atiya; et al. (British Psychological Society, 2021-02-02)
      ‘This is a pre-publication version of the following article: [Chater A, Whittaker E, Lewis L, Arden MA, Byrne-Davis L, Chadwick P, Drury J, Epton T, Hart J, Kamal A, McBride E, O'Connor D, Shorter G, Swanson V, Armitage C (2021) 'Health psychology, behavioural science, and Covid-19 disease prevention', Health Psychology Update, (in press).]’ In March 2020 the president of the British Psychological Society (BPS) reached out to member networks to join forces on a BPS COVID-19 co-ordinating group. Members of this group were tasked to lead different work-streams highlighting psychology’s role during the pandemic. One work-stream focused on ‘Behavioural Science and Disease Prevention’. It was clear that understanding behaviour and anticipating public responses to changes in policies, public messaging and guidelines would be key to improving health outcomes. This work-stream focused on developing clear guidance to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and identifying psychological evidence to promote best practice in the design of sustainable behavioural interventions. This includes both immediate infection control behaviours aimed at reducing virus transmission, such as hand washing, physical-distancing and self-isolation, and behaviours that may have been influenced during the pandemic, such as physical activity, eating behaviour, substance use and healthcare use, which will have far reaching impacts on future health. This article provides an overview of the core guidance and practical examples of its application in a public health setting.
    • Health-Based Physical Education – a framework for promoting active lifestyles in children and young people. Part 1: Introducing a new pedagogical model for Health-Based Physical Education

      Bowler, Mark; Sammon, Paul; (Assocation for Physical Education, 2020-11-19)
      HBPE is one framework that can support physical educators to promote young people’s positive physical activity attitudes and behaviours. In part 1, we present a rationale for new ‘PE-for-health pedagogies’ (Armour &amp; Harris, 2013) – new ways of teaching about physical activity. We subsequently justify the foundations of HBPE, including the model’s major theme and goals, and the underlying theories and important assumptions for practitioners. In part 2, we provide a range of practical examples and identify key considerations to illustrate how HBPE can be effectively applied to help promote positive physical activity behaviour.
    • Health-Based Physical Education – a framework for promoting active lifestyles in children and young people. Part 2: Health-Based Physical Education in practice

      Sammon, Paul; Bowler, Mark (Association for Physical Education, 2020-11-19)
      Building on part 1, where we introduced a new pedagogical model for Health-Based Physical Education (HBPE), the primary aim of this article is to illustrate how the model may be implemented in the PE curriculum to help support all children and young people to develop positive physical activity behaviours. Specifically, we consider the model’s critical features for teaching and learning, followed by some key planning considerations, including learning intentions, assessment strategies and how the model can potentially be modified to reflect specific contexts during implementation.
    • Healthcare-related data integration framework and knowledge reasoning process

      Yu, Hong Qing; Zhao, Xia; Deng, Zhikun; Dong, Feng; University of Bedfordshire; Birmingham City University (Springer Verlag, 2017-07-12)
      In this paper, we illustrate sensor data based healthcare information integration framework with semantic knowledge reasoning power. Nowadays, more and more people start to use mobile applications that can collects data from a variety of health and wellbeing sensors and presents significant correlations across sensors systems. However, it is difficult to correlate and integrate data from these varieties provided users with overall wellbeing picture and hidden insights about systematic health trends. The paper presents a data semantic integration solution using semantic web technologies. The process includes knowledge lifting and reasoning process that could feedback many hidden health factors and personal lifestyle analysis using semantic rule language (SWRL).
    • A healthy contribution

      Johnston, Marie; Weinman, John; Chater, Angel M. (British Psychological Society, 2011-12-31)
      Marie Johnston, John Weinman and Angel Chater introduce a special feature to mark the founding of the Society’s Health Psychology Section 25 years ago