• 'I feel your pain': terrorism, the media and the politics of response

      Silverman, Jon; Thomas, Lisa; University of Bedfordshire (Sage Publications Inc., 2012-12-10)
      This paper focuses on the interaction between a rapidly changing media and the policy responses of UK governments, faced with terrorist violence which has evolved in form and intent. New Labour's final term in office was dominated by the tension between the competing claims of liberty and security, expressed in Tony Blair's declaration after the 7/7 attacks, 'Let no-one be in any doubt, the rules of the game are changing'. We argue that, insofar as crime,justice and civil rights are governed by a normative set of rules, they were subverted by New Labour in the mid-1990s for party political reasons. Thus, after 9/11, they needed little re-shaping to meet the challenges of 21st century terrorism.Our thesis is based partly on primary interviews and partly on analyses of media coverage, parliamentary debates and government responses in the form of press releases and speeches. The purpose of the interviews - with 'insider' figures from the world of politics, the police and civil society - was to triangulate the known policy responses to 9/11 with the views and perceptions of these figures to assess whether some of the assumptions about the impact of that event on the UK need to be rethought.
    • “I had to pop a wheelie and pay extra attention in order not to fall:” embodied experiences of two wheelchair tennis athletes transgressing ableist and gendered norms in disability sport and university spaces

      Lynch, Shrehan; Hill, Joanne; ; University of East London; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2020-02-20)
      When bodies move in certain contexts, it can mean very different things for different people. In our society, some bodies are more valued than others, and detrimentally, this can mean that certain types of bodies are ostracized and segregated to the outskirts of production economies and society. Dis/ability sport spaces, able-bodied sports spaces and able-bodied university spaces have been an under-researched area when considering how the body moves throughout these spaces for elite wheelchair athletes taking part in university courses. To learn more, this paper drew on feminist poststructuralism and new materialist perspectives and shared an insight into how two athletes with dis/abilities transgressed abled and gendered norms in different spaces and how they positioned themselves as athletic bodies and disabled bodies in these spaces. Employing a post-critical ethnographic design, we found that dependent on the space a dis/abled body is in constant flux as to when it feels marginalised and different (typically able-bodied spaces) and when it feels included, valued, and strong (typically dis/abled spaces). Significantly, the materiality of the institutional structures of universities, founded upon historic aesthetics of beauty dictated the physical spaces the athletes entered and created spaces of exclusion based on capitalist and ableist ideologies. When bodies move in certain contexts, it can mean very different things for different people. In our society, some bodies are more valued than others, and detrimentally, this can mean that certain types of bodies are ostracized and segregated to the outskirts of production economies and society. Dis/ability sport spaces, able-bodied sports spaces and able-bodied university spaces have been an under-researched area when considering how the body moves throughout these spaces for elite wheelchair athletes taking part in university courses. To learn more, this paper drew on feminist poststructuralism and new materialist perspectives and shared an insight into how two athletes with dis/abilities transgressed abled and gendered norms in different spaces and how they positioned themselves as athletic bodies and disabled bodies in these spaces. Employing a post-critical ethnographic design, we found that dependent on the space a dis/abled body is in constant flux as to when it feels marginalised and different (typically able-bodied spaces) and when it feels included, valued, and strong (typically dis/abled spaces). Significantly, the materiality of the institutional structures of universities, founded upon historic aesthetics of beauty dictated the physical spaces the athletes entered and created spaces of exclusion based on capitalist and ableist ideologies. 
    • ‘I love being in the garden’: enchanting encounters in everyday life

      Bhatti, Mark; Church, Andrew; Claremont, Amanda; Stenner, Paul (Routledge, 2008-12-02)
      This paper examines how the domestic garden is experienced as an intimate place in everyday life. With reference to Bachelard we seek to analyse prosaic pleasures and enchanting encounters that are revealed through multi-sensorial engagements and emotional attachments within the social/natural world. In particular we focus on three modalities of the everyday: work or tasks involved in gardening; that is, sensuous and embodied experiences explored through the notion of haptic perception; ‘cultivation’ in the sense of taking care of the garden, as well as caring for the self and others; and emotional attachments invoking body/place memories, especially of childhood gardens. To illustrate these themes we use garden narratives drawn from the Mass Observation Archive (MOA).
    • ‘I never promised you a rose garden’: gender, leisure and home-making

      Bhatti, Mark; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 2000-07-01)
      This paper explores the importance of contemporary gardens as leisure sites and argues that leisure in general, and the garden in particular, play an important role in the process of homemaking. We also consider how the contemporary garden reflects wider social relations by examining how gender relations imbue gardens and gardening. The gendered meanings of gardens and the garden as a place where gender power relations are played out, are highly significant in the social construction of ‘home’. Using primary research data, the paper looks at what it is about the domestic garden that is important to both men and women, and how it contributes to homemaking. The findings show that there are conflicting uses and meanings of gardens which help to reveal the changing nature of gender relations in late modernity.
    • ICPR2017 – The Fourth International Conference on Practice Research: overview

      Chin, Ci-Siou; Ciro, Diane; Fisher, Mike; Ji, Clara; Begum, Razwana; Rahim, Abdul; Lien. Ying; Kay-yu Wu, Florence; University of Bedfordshire (IASSW, 2017-10-09)
      This paper reports issues arising from the Fourth International Conference on Practice Research, held in Hong Kong in May 2017. The issues were identified by specially convened group of conference participants, and include the need to develop a better language to describe practice research in terms that make sense to practitioners, improved support for practitioners to conduct research, recognising the different drivers for practice research in different countries, and enhancing practitioners' coordinating and leadership roles.
    • Identification of complex health interventions suitable for evaluation: development and validation of the 8-step scoping framework

      Davidson, Rosemary; Randhawa, Gurch; Cash, Stephanie; University of Bedfordshire; Flying Start (JMIR Publications, 2019-03-05)
      Background: There is extensive literature on the methodology of evaluation research and the development and evaluation of complex interventions but little guidance on the formative stages before evaluation and how to work with partner organizations that wish to have their provision evaluated. It is important to be able to identify suitable projects for evaluation from a range of provision and describe the steps required, often with academic institutions working in partnership with external organizations, in order to set up an evaluation. However, research evaluating programs or interventions rarely discusses these stages. Objective: This study aimed to extend work on evaluability assessment and pre-evaluation planning by proposing an 8-Step Scoping Framework to enable the appraisal of multiple programs in order to identify interventions suitable for evaluation. We aimed to add to the literature on evaluability assessment and more recent evaluation guidance by describing the processes involved in working with partner organizations. Methods: This paper documents the steps required to identify multiple complex interventions suitable for process and outcome evaluation. The steps were developed using an iterative approach by working alongside staff in a local government organization, to build an evidence base to demonstrate which interventions improve children’s outcomes. The process of identifying suitable programs for evaluation, thereby establishing the pre-evaluation steps, was tested using all Flying Start provision. Results: The 8-Step Scoping Framework was described using the example of the local government organization Flying Start to illustrate how each step contributes to finding projects suitable for process and outcome evaluation: (1) formulating overarching key questions that encompass all programs offered by an organization, (2) gaining an in-depth understanding of the work and provision of an organization and engaging staff, (3) completing a data template per project/program offered, (4) assessing the robustness/validity of data across all programs, (5) deciding on projects suitable for evaluation and those requiring additional data, (6) negotiating with chosen project leads, both within and outside the organization, (7) developing individual project evaluation protocols, and (8) applying for ethical approval from the university and partner organization. Conclusions: This paper describes the processes involved in identifying suitable projects for evaluation. It adds to the existing literature on the assessment of specific programs suitable for evaluation and guidance for conducting evaluations by establishing the formative steps required to identify suitable programs from a range of provision. This scoping framework particularly relates to academic partners and organizations tasked with delivering evidence-based services designed to meet local needs. The steps identified have been described in the context of early years provision but can be applied to a range of community-based evaluations, or more generally, to cases where an academic partner is working with external stakeholders to identify projects suitable for academic evaluation.
    • Identification of new antibacterial targets in RNA polymerase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by detecting positive selection sites

      Wang, QingBiao; Xu, Yiqin; Gu, Zhuoya; Liu, Nian; Jin, Ke; Li, Yao; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zhong, Yang; Fudan University; Oxford University; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-11-21)
      Bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) is an effective target for antibacterial treatment. In order to search new potential targets in RNAP of Mycobacterium, we detected adaptive selections of RNAP related genes in 13 strains of Mycobacterium by phylogenetic analysis. We first collected sequences of 17 genes including rpoA, rpoB, rpoC, rpoZ, and sigma factor A-M. Then maximum likelihood trees were constructed, followed by positive selection detection. We found that sigG shows positive selection along the clade (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis), suggesting its important evolutionary role and its potential to be a new antibacterial target. Moreover, the regions near 933Cys and 935His on the rpoB subunit of M. tuberculosis showed significant positive selection, which could also be a new attractive target for anti-tuberculosis drugs.
    • Identification of survivin as a promising target for the immunotherapy of adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

      Boullosa, Laura Freire; Savaliya, Payalben; Bonney, Stephanie A.; Orchard, Laurence; Wickenden, Hannah; Lee, Cindy; Smits, Evelien L.J.; Banham, Alison H.; Mills, Ken I.; Orchard, Kim H.; et al. (Impact Journals, 2017-12-17)
      B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is a rare heterogeneous disease characterized by a block in lymphoid differentiation and a rapid clonal expansion of immature, non-functioning B cells. Adult B-ALL patients have a poor prognosis with less than 50% chance of survival after five years and a high relapse rate after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Novel treatment approaches are required to improve the outcome for patients and the identification of B-ALL specific antigens are essential for the development of targeted immunotherapeutic treatments. We examined twelve potential target antigens for the immunotherapy of adult B-ALL. RT-PCR indicated that only survivin and WT1 were expressed in B-ALL patient samples (7/11 and 6/11, respectively) but not normal donor control samples (0/8). Real-time quantitative (RQ)-PCR showed that survivin was the only antigen whose transcript exhibited significantly higher expression in the B-ALL samples (n = 10) compared with healthy controls (n = 4)(p = 0.015). Immunolabelling detected SSX2, SSX2IP, survivin and WT1 protein expression in all ten B-ALL samples examined, but survivin was not detectable in healthy volunteer samples. To determine whether these findings were supported by the analyses of a larger cohort of patient samples, we performed metadata analysis on an already published microarray dataset. We found that only survivin was significantly over-expressed in B-ALL patients (n = 215) compared to healthy B-cell controls (n = 12)(p = 0.013). We have shown that survivin is frequently transcribed and translated in adult B-ALL, but not healthy donor samples, suggesting this may be a promising target patient group for survivin-mediated immunotherapy.
    • Identification of the period of stability in a balance test after stepping up using a simplified cumulative sum

      Safieddine, Doha; Chkeir, Aly; Herlem, Cyrille; Bera, Delphine; Collart, Michèle; Novella, Jean-Luc; Dramé, Moustapha; Hewson, David; Duchêne, Jacques; University of Technology of Troyes; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-09-19)
      Falls are a major cause of death in older people. One method used to predict falls is analysis of Centre of Pressure (CoP) displacement, which provides a measure of balance quality. The Balance Quality Tester (BQT) is a device based on a commercial bathroom scale that calculates instantaneous values of vertical ground reaction force (Fz) as well as the CoP in both anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions. The entire testing process needs to take no longer than 12 s to ensure subject compliance, making it vital that calculations related to balance are only calculated for the period when the subject is static. In the present study, a method is presented to detect the stabilization period after a subject has stepped onto the BQT. Four different phases of the test are identified (stepping-on, stabilization, balancing, stepping-off), ensuring that subjects are static when parameters from the balancing phase are calculated. The method, based on a simplified cumulative sum (CUSUM) algorithm, could detect the change between unstable and stable stance. The time taken to stabilize significantly affected the static balance variables of surface area and trajectory velocity, and was also related to Timed-up-and-Go performance. Such a finding suggests that the time to stabilize could be a worthwhile parameter to explore as a potential indicator of balance problems and fall risk in older people.
    • Identifying Mubasher software products through sentiment analysis of Arabic tweets

      AL-Rubaiee, Hamed Saad; Qiu, Renxi; Li, Dayou; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-05-02)
      Social media has recently become a rich resource in mining user sentiments. In this paper, Twitter has been chosen as a platform for opinion mining in trading strategy with Mubasher products, which is a leading stock analysis software provider in the Gulf region. This experiment proposes a model for sentiment analysis of Saudi Arabic (standard and Arabian Gulf dialect) tweets to extract feedback from Mubasher products. A hybrid of natural language processing and machine learning approaches on building models are used to classify tweets according to their sentiment polarity into one of the classes positive, negative and neutral. Firstly, document's Pre-processing are explored on the dataset. Secondly, Naive Bayes and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are applied with different feature selection schemes like TF-IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency) and BTO (Binary-Term Occurrence). Thirdly, the proposed model for sentiment analysis is expanded to obtain the results for N-Grams term of tokens. Finally, human has labelled the data and this may involve some mistakes in the labelling process. At this moment, neutral class with generalisation of our classification will take results to different classification accuracy.
    • Identifying patterns in signs and symptoms preceding the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease : retrospective medical record review study and a nested case -control design

      Bature, Fidelia; Pang, Dong; Robinson, Anthea; Polson, Norma; Pappas, Yannis; Guinn, Barbara-Ann (Bentham, 2018-04-04)
      OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often diagnosed in the later stages of their disease with a poor prognosis. This study aimed to identify patterns in signs and symptoms preceding the clinical diagnosis of AD to suggest a predictive model for earlier diagnosis of the disease in the primary care. DESIGN: A retrospective medical record review; nested case control design. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included one hundred and nine patients from three general practice (GP) surgeries in Milton Keynes and Luton Clinical Commissioning groups (CCG) (37 cases with AD and 72 controls without AD). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A retrospective analysis using the logistic regression of the presence of signs and symptoms before the diagnosis of AD was attained. Identification of the timing and sequence of appearance of these presentations as first reported before the clinical diagnosis was measured. RESULT: Episodic memory with an odds ratio of 1.85 was the most frequent presentation, documented in 1.38% of the controls and 75.6% in cases. Auditory disturbance with an odds ratio of 3.03, which has not previously been noted except in the form of auditory hallucination, could have a diagnostic value. CONCLUSION: Auditory disturbance, which occurred mostly in the Caucasian females, could discriminate individuals with AD from those without. The symptom, which presented up to 14.5 (mean time) years prior to clinical diagnosis, was identified in Caucasians and mixed race individuals only.
    • Identifying pneumonia in chest X-rays: a deep learning approach

      Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Prayag; Kumar, Sachin; Gupta, Deepak; Khanna, Ashish; Rodrigues, Joel J.P.C.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Padova; South Ural State University; Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-06-04)
      The rich collection of annotated datasets piloted the robustness of deep learning techniques to effectuate the implementation of diverse medical imaging tasks. Over 15% of deaths include children under age five are caused by pneumonia globally. In this study, we describe our deep learning based approach for the identification and localization of pneumonia in Chest X-rays (CXRs) images. Researchers usually employ CXRs for the diagnostic imaging study. Several factors such as positioning of the patient and depth of inspiration can change the appearance of the chest X-ray, complicating interpretation further. Our identification model (https://github.com/amitkumarj441/identify_pneumonia) is based on Mask-RCNN, a deep neural network which incorporates global and local features for pixel-wise segmentation. Our approach achieves robustness through critical modifications of the training process and a novel post-processing step which merges bounding boxes from multiple models. The proposed identification model achieves better performances evaluated on chest radiograph dataset which depict potential pneumonia causes.
    • Identifying the configurational conditions for marketing analytics use in UK SME

      Cao, Guangming; Duan, Yanqing; Tian, Na (Emerald, 2021-04-09)
      While marketing analytics can be used to improve organizational decision-making and performance significantly, little research exists to examine how the configurations of multiple conditions affect marketing analytics use. This study draws on configuration theory to investigate marketing analytics use in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This research employs fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis using data collected from a survey of 187 managers in UK SMEs. The key findings show that (1) configurations of multiple conditions provide alternative pathways to marketing analytics use; and (2) the configurations for small firms are different from those for medium-sized firms. The research results are based on several key configurational factors and a single key-informant method to collect subjective data from UK SME managers. The study helps SMEs to understand that marketing analytics use is influenced by the interaction of multiple conditions, that there are alternative pathways to marketing analytics use, and that SMEs should choose the configuration that fits best with their organizational contexts.
    • Identifying the configurational paths to innovation in SMEs: a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis

      Poorkavoos, Meysam; Duan, Yanqing; Edwards, John S.; Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan; Roffey Park Institute; University of Bedfordshire; Aston University (Elsevier Inc., 2016-05-01)
      Using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), this study investigates the conditions leading to a higher level of innovation. More specifically, the study explores the impact of inter-organisational knowledge transfer networks and organisations' internal capabilities on different types of innovation in Small to Medium size Enterprises (SMEs) in the high-tech sector. A survey instrument was used to collect data from a sample of UK SMEs. The findings show that although individual factors are important, there is no need for a company to perform well in all the areas. The fsQCA, which enables the examination of the impacts of different combinations of factors, reveals that there are a number of paths to achieve better incremental and radical innovation performance. Companies need to choose the one that is closest to their abilities and fits best with their resources.
    • Identifying wellbeing challenges and solutions in the police service using the World Café method

      Clements, Andrew James; Sharples, Adrienne; Kinman, Gail; University of Bedfordshire (SAGE, 2020-01-10)
      Police work presents risks to mental and physical health for officers and civilian staff. We report a project that involved police employees in identifying wellbeing challenges and potential solutions. We facilitated ‘World Café’ events in which approximately 180 officers and civilian staff participated. Qualitative data were collected and thematically analysed drawing upon the Job Demands-Resources model. We identified themes relating to workload, management practices, occupational health processes, and continuing mental health stigma. Our analyses suggest an environment in which resources are insufficient to meet demands. The resulting pressures may contribute to management behaviours that can impair subordinate wellbeing.
    • Identity and social media [editorial]

      Knight, Julia; Weedon, Alexis (SAGE, 2014-08-31)
    • Identity formation among novice academic teachers–a longitudinal study

      McLean, Neil; Price, Linda (Routledge, 2017-12-03)
      This study reports findings from an in-depth, longitudinal investigation of the formation of 13 novice tutors’ professional identities as academic teachers. The study spanned tutors’ first two years in-service, while they were also participating in a teacher development course. Discourse was analysed across 65 time-series coursework texts, completed as part of the tutors’ reflection on their teaching practice. The analysis captured the use of explicit identity positioning cues by tutors across the texts. Four discreet identity positions were catalogued: academic insider, class teacher, teaching course participant and young academic. The study illustrates how these tutors developed more complex identity narratives with enriched coherence over time as they reported negotiating challenges and dissonance between initial expectations and actual teaching experiences. This finding offers explanatory support for previous research regarding the value of longer term teacher development programmes and illuminates existing theoretical models with practitioner perspectives.
    • Ideology and ostensive-inferential communication

      Zegarac, Vladimir (Japan Pragmatics Society, 2004-01-01)
      This article is based on a paper presented at the Workshop on Relevance Theory, held at the Gakushuin University Research Institute for Humanities, Tokyo, December 2002
    • IEEE Access special section: advances in interference mitigation techniques for device-to-device communications

      Ur-Rehman, Masood; Gao, Yue; Chaudhry, Mohammad Asad Rehman; Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali; Xu, Yanli; University of Essex; Queen Mary University of London; University of Toronto; University of Bedfordshire; Shanghai Maritime University (IEEE, 2019-12-17)
      Editorial