• Jaloud v Netherlands and Hassan v United Kingdom: time for a principled approach in the application of the ECHR to military action abroad

      Borelli, Silvia (2015-05)
      The aim of the present piece is not to undertake an examination of which of international human rights law (IHRL) and international humanitarian law (IHL) is ‘better’ or more appropriate to regulate the conduct of States in situations of armed conflict. Advocates of IHRL argue that it provides heightened protection for individuals, and that, by its own terms, it applies to, and is perfectly equipped to deal with situations of exception, including armed conflicts.[1] On the other hand, supporters of IHL focus on the need not to place unnecessary fetters upon the freedom of States to pursue their military objectives in situations of armed conflict, and argue that IHL provides an adequate level of protection, whilst being more pragmatic, better suited to the specificities of armed conflict and more likely to be observed by the parties to the conflict.[2] Insofar as they prioritise different values, proponents of the two opposing camps to a large extent talk past each other and the debate is therefore necessarily somewhat sterile.
    • Jarrold Ltd. of Norwich and Anna Sewell's Black Beauty

      Weedon, Alexis (Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy E - Oxford Open Option D, 1993-01-01)
      Jarrold Ltd in Norwich, England, was primarily a printers but it did some publishing in middle to late 19th century of children's books, stationary, regional guides, school books and temperance literature. Its most well known book is Anna Sewell's 'Black Beauty: The Autobiography of a Horse,' first published on Nov 24, 1878. The company produced many reprints until Oct 1912 when William Clowes Ltd put out the English, Colonial and De Luxe editions. Jarrold Ltd maintains a working printing museum in Norwich and an Archive with its records including those on the Sewell novel.
    • Job demands, resources and mental health in UK prison officers

      Kinman, Gail; Clements, Andrew James; Hart, Jacqui Ann (Oxford University Press, 2017-07-03)
      Background: Research findings indicate that working as a prison officer can be highly stressful, but the aspects of work that predict their mental health status are largely unknown. Aims: To examine, using elements of the demands-resources model, the extent to which work pressure and several potential resources (i.e. control, support from managers and coworkers, role clarity, effective working relationships and positive change management) predict mental health in a sample of UK prison officers. Methods: The Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool was used to measure job demands and resources. Mental health was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire-28. The effects of demands and resources on mental health were examined via linear regression analysis with GHQ score as the outcome. Results: The study sample comprised 1,267 prison officers (86% male). 74% met ‘caseness’ criteria for mental health problems. Job demands, poor interpersonal relationships, role ambiguity and, to a lesser extent, low job control and poor management of change were key predictors of mental health status. Conclusions: The findings of this study can help occupational health practitioners and psychologists develop structured interventions to improve wellbeing among prison officers.
    • Job demands, resources and work-related well-being in UK firefighters

      Payne, N.; Kinman, Gail; (Oxford University Press, 2020-01-11)
      Background: There is evidence that firefighters are at risk of work-related stress and mental health problems, but little is known about the organizational hazards they experience. Insight is needed into the work-related factors that are most likely to threaten or protect their work-related well-being. Aims: To identify levels of job demands and resources (including demands relating to workload, work patterns and the working environment, relationship conflicts, control, support, role clarity and change management) among firefighters, and to use a job demands-resources framework to examine their impacts on work-related well-being. The role played by recovery strategies in predicting work-related well-being was also considered. Methods: Job demands and resources were assessed by the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) Management Standards Indicator Tool. Validated scales measured recovery strategies (detachment, affective rumination and problem-solving pondering) and work-related well-being (anxiety-contentment and depression-enthusiasm). The impact of job demands, resources and recovery strategies was tested by multiple linear regression. Results: The sample comprised 909 firefighters across seven Fire and Rescue Services in the UK (85% male). Levels of job demands and resources did not meet HSE benchmarks. The main risk factors for poor work-related well-being were relationship conflicts and affective rumination, but resources such as role clarity and job control and the use of problem-solving pondering and detachment were beneficial. Conclusions: Interventions that aim to reduce relationship conflicts at work and promote problem-solving rather than affective rumination, and detachment from work when off-duty, are likely to improve work-related well-being. Attention to enhancing job resources may also be beneficial.
    • Joining the dots? Tackling child exploitation during Covid 19

      Racher, Anna; Brodie, Isabelle; Research in Practice for Adults; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald Publishing, 2020-10-20)
      Purpose – This paper aims to report on findings from action research undertaken in response to the Covid-19 pandemic by the Tackling Child Exploitation Support Programme (TCESP), a Department for Education funded programme that provides support to local areas in improving their strategic approach to child exploitation and extra-familial harm. Design/methodology/approach – The research included a scoping review of the literature, and focus groups with programme staff, strategic leaders and professionals from different services across England. To provide a strategic lens, findings were then considered in relation to TCE’s ‘‘Joining the dots’’ framework, which encourages examination of the relationships between different forms of child exploitation. Findings – The action research highlighted the emerging and tentative nature of the knowledge base relating to child exploitation and extra-familial harm in the context of Covid-19. Findings revealed that there had been innovation in the use of digital methods and direct working, integration of practical support with other forms of service delivery and in partnership working, and also considerable variation in approach across different local areas. Practical implications – Strategic leaders need to use the evidence emerging from lockdown as a basis for further interrogation of emerging data alongside the views of young people, families and communities and their wider workforce. This includes new information about changing patterns of exploitation. Digital delivery and innovation need to be supported by clear strategic guidance, based on review of the evidence regarding increased digital communication and its impact. New partnerships developed between services, data sharing and innovative ways of working that have taken place during lockdown need to be monitored and evaluated for quality and impact. Originality/value – The action research findings offer a snapshot of practice regarding child exploitation and extra-familial harm at a mid-point in the Covid-19 lockdown in England and Wales.
    • Joint resource blocks switching off and bandwidth expansion for energy saving in LTE networks

      Kanwal, Kapil; Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali; Haxha, Shyqyri; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-11-02)
      In the wireless networks community, Long Term Evolution (LTE) facilitates users with high data rate at the cost of increased energy consumption. The base station (BS) also known as eNodeBs are the main energy hungry elements in LTE networks. Power is consumed by different components of BS such as Baseband Unit (BB), Power Amplifier (PA) and other cooling systems. Since power consumption directly affects the Operational Expenditure (OPEX), thus the provision of cost effective services with adequate quality of service (QoS) has become a major challenge. Moreover, the energy consumed by Information and Communication Technology (ICT) appliances contributes 2% to global warming (CO2 emission), which is another significant problem. This paper presents a joint resource blocks switching off and bandwidth expansion energy saving scheme for LTE networks. Performance analysis of the proposed scheme has revealed that it is around 29% energy efficient as compared to the benchmark LTE systems.
    • Joint workshop on bibliometric-enhanced information retrieval and natural language processing for digital libraries (BIRNDL 2016)

      Cabanac, Guillaume; Chandrasekaran, Muthu Kumar; Frommholz, Ingo; Jaidka, Kokil; Kan, Min-Yen; Mayr, Philipp; Wolfram, Dietmar; University of Toulouse; University of Bedfordshire; Adobe Systems Inc., India; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-09-05)
      The large scale of scholarly publications poses a challenge for scholars in information-seeking and sensemaking. Bibliometric, information retrieval (IR), text mining and NLP techniques could help in these activities, but are not yet widely used in digital libraries. This workshop is intended to stimulate IR researchers and digital library professionals to elaborate on new approaches in natural language processing, information retrieval, scientometric and recommendation techniques which can advance the state-of-the-art in scholarly document understanding, analysis and retrieval at scale.
    • Jungian film studies: the essential guide

      Bassil-Morozow, Helena; Hockley, Luke (Routledge, 2016-11-30)
      Jungian film studies is a fast-growing academic field, but Jungian and post-Jungian concepts are still new to many academics and film critics. Helena Bassil-Morozow and Luke Hockley present Jungian Film Studies: The Essential Guide, the first book to bring together all the different strands, issues and arguments in the discipline, and guide the reader through the various ways in which Jungian psychology can be applied to moving images.  Bassil-Morozow and Hockley cover a range of Jungian concepts including the collective unconscious, archetypes, the individuation process, alchemy, and signs and symbols, showing how they can be used to discuss the core cinematic issues such as narrative structure, gender, identity, genre, authorship, and phenomenology. The authors argue that, as a place where the unconscious and conscious meet, cinema offers the potential for imagery that is psychologically potent, meaningful, and that plays a role in our personal psychological development. This much-needed book, which bridges the space between Jungian concepts and traditional film theory, will be essential reading for scholars and students of Analytical Psychology, psychoanalysis, Jungian film studies, media, film and cultural studies, psychosocial psychology and clinical psychology. It will also appeal to analytical psychologists, psychotherapists and readers with an interest in film analysis.
    • 'Just another person in the room’: young people’s views on their participation in Child in Care Reviews

      Diaz, Clive; Pert, Hayley; Thomas, Nigel (SAGE, 2018-12-11)
      This article discusses a key meeting for children in care – the Child in Care Review – and examines the extent to which children and young people are able to participate and exert a level of control over their lives. The research, conducted in England, formed part of a wider exploration of the views and experiences of all those involved in such reviews, namely Independent Reviewing Officers (IROs), social workers, senior managers and – the focus of this article – the young people concerned. Most of the children interviewed said that they found their reviews frustrating and stressful, often attributing this to poor relationships with social workers and scepticism about the value of the review process. However, they recognised the workload pressures facing social workers and the bureaucratic constraints affecting the service they received. The article argues for the continuing importance of the IRO role, given the consistency it provides for children in care. It also shows that while it provides an opportunity for children’s participation in discussions about their future, the Child in Care Review is underperforming. The developing practice of children chairing their own reviews offers one way forward and the article calls for this to be developed and for other creative methods to be introduced to enable young people to play a meaningful part in meetings that affect them.
    • The justice conundrum : Africa's turbulent relationship with the ICC

      Silverman, Jon; University of Bedfordshire (Harvard University, Harvard Law School, 2019-02-18)
      This article/blog is a response to the article 'Judicialization of Peace' in the Harvard International Law Journal Vol 59(2).The Colombia transitional peace model, as described in the article, offers an interesting prism through which to view the ICC's involvement in African conflicts which, hitherto, has served mainly to antagonize African leaders and achieved little in the way of transitional justice. This response looks critically at the role of the Office of the  Prosecutor under both Luis Moreno Ocampo and Fatou Bensouda ; examines some of the flaws in the Kenyatta/Ruto prosecution; and asks whether the 'shadow effect' of the ICC (pace the article) could help mediate meaningful peace moves on a continent whose institutions, in the main, are far less robust than Colombia's.  It also posits a philosophical gulf between African concepts of 'human rights', rooted in tribe and ethnic community, and the ICC's application of (Enlightenment) principles of individual liberties.  
    • Kashmiri nationalism beyond the nation state

      Ali, Nasreen (SAGE, 2002-01-01)
      Fifty years on the Kashmir conflict rumbles on. The various parties to the dispute engage in highly polemical exchanges in a variety of media, artillery shells cross the line of control and the region remains a potential nuclear flashpaint. Given the geopolitical aspects of the conflict, it is not surprising that the Kashmiri dispute continues to be studied primarily in terms of relations between India and Pakistan, or as a threat to regional stability. At the heart of the Kashmir conflict is the issue of identity, and the rival claims of India, Pakistan and Kashmiris all depend on what the exact nature of Kashmir (an intrinsic part of the Mahabharata, Muslim, indigenous or secular) is. The plethora of terms that designate the various political and territorial configurations in the dispute (Indian-occupied Kashmir, Pakistanioccupied Kashmir, Indian-administered Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, Azad Kashmir) point to the absence of even a rudimentary consensus about the identity of Kashmir and Kashmiris. While the study of the dispute has produced a copious literature in terms of international relations, there has been much less work done on the relationship between the articulation of a distinct Kashmiri identity and the existence of a large diasporic population. It is this relationship that I want to explore in this article. While I concede the salience of many other factors contributing to the Kashmiri dispute (the rival claims of Pakistan and India, and the role of the various armed forces in the region) my purpose is to examine the way a particular representation of Kashmir has become increasingly prominent, one that is not reducible to the machinations of the Pakistani or Indian governments or their clients. It is sometimes suggested that Kashmiris have failed to establish themselves as a nation and Kashmiri identity continues to be a rather fragile affair. This view that Kashmiris do not constitute a genuine distinct nationality was dominant until very recently, and to some extent is still dominant amongst Pakistanis and Indians. I suggest that this is only the case if we continue to see the formations of nations and ethnic identity through the prism of nineteenth-century notions of collective identity.’ In this article I want to show how developments in globalisation have produced a new matrix through which it is possible to configure Kashmiri identity as a diasporic form. I will do this in two ways. Using research from ethnographic work carried out in Luton, I will first show the way in which the contemporary articulation of Kashmiris-ness as a distinct ethnicity has been made possible by the settlement of Kashmiris outside historical ideas of what constituted Kashmir. I want to show that the creation of a Kashmiri identity is heavily dependant on the displacement and resettlement of Kashmiris outside of their imagined homeland. In other words, the discourse of Kashmiriyat emerges in a diasporic space. Second, I will show how this discourse recruits its subjects and projects its collective identity in a de-terntorialised diasporic context. In other words, this article has two major themes to it. The first theme examines the way Kashmiri identity is narrated and focuses on the variety of agents responsible for the construction of this Kashmiri-ness. The second theme examines the way in which a group of people (who constitute most of my respondents) express their Kashmiri-ness in both a global and local context.
    • Kashmiris: between ethnicity and nationality: will the ‘real’ Kashmiris please stand up?

      Ali, Nasreen (British Association for South Asian Studies, 2002-01-01)
    • Keeping children safe? Advancing social care assessments to address harmful sexual behaviour in schools

      Lloyd, Jenny; Walker, Joanne; Firmin, Carlene Emma; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2020-03-05)
      International evidence suggests that schools are locations where systems, practices and cultures can enable harmful sexual behaviours. However, in England, welfare assessments primarily used by statutory social services largely target young people and their families, with limited capacity to assess environments beyond the home. Where young people display harmful sexual behaviours within educational settings, social care systems are yet to assess the factors within schools which may accelerate risks associated with harmful sexual behaviours. This exploratory article presents evidence on the opportunities for school assessment using cumulative learning from two studies. The first investigated enablers and barriers to addressing harmful sexual behaviour in schools. The second employed the learning from the first through an action research study to develop school context assessments within a child protection system. Both studies employed a mixed-methods approach including observations, case review, focus groups, surveys and policy reviews to access data. Synthesised findings highlight: the value of exploring school contexts when assessing the nature of extra-familial abuse; the opportunities and challenges of utilising research methods for assessing school environments; and the role new assessment frameworks could play in supporting the inclusion of school contexts, and research methods, into welfare assessments of extra-familial abuse.
    • Key success factors of using social media as a learning tool

      Kofinas, Alexander K.; Al-Shawakbeh, Abdallah; Lim, Andriew; University of Bedfordshire; University of Greenwich; HotelSchool The Hague (IGI Global, 2017-10-01)
      Students are dedicated and innovative users of Social Media; in the context of Higher Education they use such media in a pragmatic fashion to enhance their learning. Higher Education institutions are thus in a position to facilitate their students’ learning by embedding Social Media in their teaching and learning pedagogy. This chapter will discuss the Key Success Factors of using Social Media as a coordinating, managing, and learning tool to enhance students’ education in the context of Higher Education. The Key Success Factors are mapped along the communication and activity flows of the student’s study enterprise as viewed from an Actor-Network Theory lenses.
    • Kings are different: Carolingian mirrors for princes and lay morality

      Stone, Rachel; Lachaud, F.; Scordia, L. (Publications des universités de Rouen et du Havre, 2007-01-01)
    • Knowledge and attitude of healthcare professionals to frailty screening in primary care: a systematic review protocol

      Okpechi, Ijeoma; Randhawa, Gurch; Hewson, David; University of Bedfordshire (BMJ Publishing Group, 2020-07-02)
      Introduction Frailty is an increasingly common condition in which physiological decline as a result of accumulated deficits renders older people more vulnerable to adverse outcomes. An increasing range of frailty screening programmes have been introduced in primary care to identify frail older people in order to deliver appropriate interventions. However, limited information on the knowledge and attitude of healthcare professionals (HCPs) with respect to frailty screening is known. The aim of this systematic review is to provide evidence on the knowledge and attitude of HCP in terms of frailty screening, and potentially identify barriers and facilitators to frailty screening to improve implementation of frailty screening in primary care. Methods/design A systematic review of qualitative research will be conducted. Databases searched will be MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO and Web of Science from January 2001 to August 2019. Methods will be reported based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Population, interest, context and study design methodology was used to develop inclusion and exclusion criteria with HCPs as population, frailty screening as interest and knowledge or attitude of HCPs to frailty screening as context. Studies with a qualitative methodology or a mixed-method design where the qualitative component is analysed separately will also be included. Quality appraisal will be carried out using the Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal tool for qualitative studies. Data will be extracted from each selected study with thematic framework analysis used to synthesise findings. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review does not require ethical approval as primary data will not be collected. The findings will be disseminated at conferences and in a relevant academic journal. This review will assist HCPs and relevant stakeholders to tackle the challenges of frailty screening in primary care. PROSPERO registration number CRD42019159007.
    • Knowledge and practice of organ donation among police personnel in Tamil Nadu: a cross-sectional study

      Thyagarajan, Ishwarya; Shroff, Sunil; Vincent, Britzer Paul; Rajendran, Juhija; Kanvinde, Hemal; Shankar, Siva; Aneesh, Kavitha; MOHAN Foundation; Madras Medical Mission Hospital; University of Bedfordshire (Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications, 2020-07-06)
      Context: Police officers are one of the key stakeholders involved in the process of deceased organ donation. In India, as road traffic accidents account for the majority of brain deaths, the police play an important role to ensure legal and ethical practices of organ donation. In many instances, the undue delays in the inquest and postmortem lead to difficulties in completing the donation and also cause distress among the family members who have said yes to organ donation despite their grief. Aim: This study aims to assess the police officers' knowledge of the organ donation process and their practice toward it. Design and Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 627 police officers in the state of Tamil Nadu in India within a period of 18 months. A structured questionnaire with multiple choice questions was used. Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 21 were used to compile and statistically analyze the data collected. The knowledge level and willingness of the officers to follow certain practices were analyzed. Results: It was found that 95.5% of the participants were aware of organ donation. Further analysis revealed that 86.6% of the police personnel were aware of brain death, but only 35.6% were aware of the transplant law, 12.1% knew about the green corridor, and 20.7% about the donor card. Very few participants (9.6%) had experience in processing brain deaths and organ donation cases. Knowledge about postmortem formalities and inquest protocols was unsatisfactory. A significant association between work experience and the knowledge and awareness about organ donation was noted. Conclusions: Including modules on organ donation awareness, transplant law, and hospital protocols in the training syllabus for the recruited personnel, followed by regular refresher courses on the subject, would be the key to enhance the knowledge and work practices of this important group to help ease pain points in the medicolegal cases where organ donation consent is provided by the relatives. A change in the attitude of police officers while handling organ donation cases would have an overall positive impact on the program.
    • Knowledge exchange as a dynamic dissemination tool

      Hutchinson, Aisha; Dance, Cherilyn (Jessica Kingsley, 2015-12-01)
    • Knowledge sharing for enhanced performance in the HEIs using a conceptual framework

      Khilji, Nasrallah; Duan, Yanqing; Tehrani, Jasmine; ; University of Bedfordshire (North American Business Press, 2021-04-30)
      Knowledge sharing is an essential management practice that provides a sustainable competitive advantage in a vibrant and dynamic economy (Kaur, 2019). To achieve an enhanced performance in the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), it is essential to make sure that the teaching and learning system is determined by knowledge sharing approach (Nair and Munusami, 2019). The Higher Education Institutions are required to consider how they could better share knowledge from experts who have it to learners who need to get the best of such expertise (Darling-Hammond et al., 2019). This study examines the knowledge sharing behaviour among academics and leaners in the HEIs by providing a better understanding for their enhanced performance. This is aimed to comprehend the individual acts of knowledge creation and the collective efforts of knowledge sharing adapted in the HEIs towards continuous improvement. A literature review is carried out to propose a conceptual framework of knowledge sharing for enhanced performance in the HEIs.
    • Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Nigerian students toward organ donation

      Ibrahim, Musa Saulawa; Randhawa, Gurch; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2017-09-18)
      The Nigerian transplantation program is evolving but is currently over-reliant on living donors. If deceased donation is to be viable in Nigeria, it is important to ascertain the views of the public. The objective of the study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Nigerian international students toward organ donation. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Nigerian international students of the University of Bedfordshire through the use of a modified self-administered questionnaire. The participants were recruited by means of purposive sampling. Of the 110 questionnaires distributed, 103 were returned fully completed (response rate = 93.6%). A significant majority (93.2%) of the participants are aware of organ donation, and 76.7% have a good knowledge on the subject. Furthermore, more than half (52.8%) of the participants have a positive attitude toward organ donation, and less than half (42.8%) have favorable behavior toward it. Higher knowledge does not correlate to either positive attitude or behavior, but a positive attitude is correlated with favorable behavior toward donation. The attitudes and behavior of the respondents toward organ donation is not commensurate with the level of knowledge they possess. This highlights the urgent need for well-structured educational programs on deceased organ donation. BACKGROUND METHODS RESULTS CONCLUSIONS