• Kashmiri nationalism beyond the nation state

      Ali, Nasreen (SAGE, 2002-01-01)
      Fifty years on the Kashmir conflict rumbles on. The various parties to the dispute engage in highly polemical exchanges in a variety of media, artillery shells cross the line of control and the region remains a potential nuclear flashpaint. Given the geopolitical aspects of the conflict, it is not surprising that the Kashmiri dispute continues to be studied primarily in terms of relations between India and Pakistan, or as a threat to regional stability. At the heart of the Kashmir conflict is the issue of identity, and the rival claims of India, Pakistan and Kashmiris all depend on what the exact nature of Kashmir (an intrinsic part of the Mahabharata, Muslim, indigenous or secular) is. The plethora of terms that designate the various political and territorial configurations in the dispute (Indian-occupied Kashmir, Pakistanioccupied Kashmir, Indian-administered Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, Azad Kashmir) point to the absence of even a rudimentary consensus about the identity of Kashmir and Kashmiris. While the study of the dispute has produced a copious literature in terms of international relations, there has been much less work done on the relationship between the articulation of a distinct Kashmiri identity and the existence of a large diasporic population. It is this relationship that I want to explore in this article. While I concede the salience of many other factors contributing to the Kashmiri dispute (the rival claims of Pakistan and India, and the role of the various armed forces in the region) my purpose is to examine the way a particular representation of Kashmir has become increasingly prominent, one that is not reducible to the machinations of the Pakistani or Indian governments or their clients. It is sometimes suggested that Kashmiris have failed to establish themselves as a nation and Kashmiri identity continues to be a rather fragile affair. This view that Kashmiris do not constitute a genuine distinct nationality was dominant until very recently, and to some extent is still dominant amongst Pakistanis and Indians. I suggest that this is only the case if we continue to see the formations of nations and ethnic identity through the prism of nineteenth-century notions of collective identity.’ In this article I want to show how developments in globalisation have produced a new matrix through which it is possible to configure Kashmiri identity as a diasporic form. I will do this in two ways. Using research from ethnographic work carried out in Luton, I will first show the way in which the contemporary articulation of Kashmiris-ness as a distinct ethnicity has been made possible by the settlement of Kashmiris outside historical ideas of what constituted Kashmir. I want to show that the creation of a Kashmiri identity is heavily dependant on the displacement and resettlement of Kashmiris outside of their imagined homeland. In other words, the discourse of Kashmiriyat emerges in a diasporic space. Second, I will show how this discourse recruits its subjects and projects its collective identity in a de-terntorialised diasporic context. In other words, this article has two major themes to it. The first theme examines the way Kashmiri identity is narrated and focuses on the variety of agents responsible for the construction of this Kashmiri-ness. The second theme examines the way in which a group of people (who constitute most of my respondents) express their Kashmiri-ness in both a global and local context.
    • Kashmiris: between ethnicity and nationality: will the ‘real’ Kashmiris please stand up?

      Ali, Nasreen (British Association for South Asian Studies, 2002-01-01)
    • Keeping children safe? Advancing social care assessments to address harmful sexual behaviour in schools

      Lloyd, Jenny; Walker, Joanne; Firmin, Carlene Emma; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2020-03-05)
      International evidence suggests that schools are locations where systems, practices and cultures can enable harmful sexual behaviours. However, in England, welfare assessments primarily used by statutory social services largely target young people and their families, with limited capacity to assess environments beyond the home. Where young people display harmful sexual behaviours within educational settings, social care systems are yet to assess the factors within schools which may accelerate risks associated with harmful sexual behaviours. This exploratory article presents evidence on the opportunities for school assessment using cumulative learning from two studies. The first investigated enablers and barriers to addressing harmful sexual behaviour in schools. The second employed the learning from the first through an action research study to develop school context assessments within a child protection system. Both studies employed a mixed-methods approach including observations, case review, focus groups, surveys and policy reviews to access data. Synthesised findings highlight: the value of exploring school contexts when assessing the nature of extra-familial abuse; the opportunities and challenges of utilising research methods for assessing school environments; and the role new assessment frameworks could play in supporting the inclusion of school contexts, and research methods, into welfare assessments of extra-familial abuse.
    • Key success factors of using social media as a learning tool

      Kofinas, Alexander K.; Al-Shawakbeh, Abdallah; Lim, Andriew; University of Bedfordshire; University of Greenwich; HotelSchool The Hague (IGI Global, 2017-10-01)
      Students are dedicated and innovative users of Social Media; in the context of Higher Education they use such media in a pragmatic fashion to enhance their learning. Higher Education institutions are thus in a position to facilitate their students’ learning by embedding Social Media in their teaching and learning pedagogy. This chapter will discuss the Key Success Factors of using Social Media as a coordinating, managing, and learning tool to enhance students’ education in the context of Higher Education. The Key Success Factors are mapped along the communication and activity flows of the student’s study enterprise as viewed from an Actor-Network Theory lenses.
    • Kings are different: Carolingian mirrors for princes and lay morality

      Stone, Rachel; Lachaud, F.; Scordia, L. (Publications des universités de Rouen et du Havre, 2007-01-01)
    • Knowledge and attitude of healthcare professionals to frailty screening in primary care: a systematic review protocol

      Okpechi, Ijeoma; Randhawa, Gurch; Hewson, David; University of Bedfordshire (BMJ Publishing Group, 2020-07-02)
      Introduction Frailty is an increasingly common condition in which physiological decline as a result of accumulated deficits renders older people more vulnerable to adverse outcomes. An increasing range of frailty screening programmes have been introduced in primary care to identify frail older people in order to deliver appropriate interventions. However, limited information on the knowledge and attitude of healthcare professionals (HCPs) with respect to frailty screening is known. The aim of this systematic review is to provide evidence on the knowledge and attitude of HCP in terms of frailty screening, and potentially identify barriers and facilitators to frailty screening to improve implementation of frailty screening in primary care. Methods/design A systematic review of qualitative research will be conducted. Databases searched will be MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO and Web of Science from January 2001 to August 2019. Methods will be reported based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Population, interest, context and study design methodology was used to develop inclusion and exclusion criteria with HCPs as population, frailty screening as interest and knowledge or attitude of HCPs to frailty screening as context. Studies with a qualitative methodology or a mixed-method design where the qualitative component is analysed separately will also be included. Quality appraisal will be carried out using the Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal tool for qualitative studies. Data will be extracted from each selected study with thematic framework analysis used to synthesise findings. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review does not require ethical approval as primary data will not be collected. The findings will be disseminated at conferences and in a relevant academic journal. This review will assist HCPs and relevant stakeholders to tackle the challenges of frailty screening in primary care. PROSPERO registration number CRD42019159007.
    • Knowledge and practice of organ donation among police personnel in Tamil Nadu: a cross-sectional study

      Thyagarajan, Ishwarya; Shroff, Sunil; Vincent, Britzer Paul; Rajendran, Juhija; Kanvinde, Hemal; Shankar, Siva; Aneesh, Kavitha; MOHAN Foundation; Madras Medical Mission Hospital; University of Bedfordshire (Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications, 2020-07-06)
      Context: Police officers are one of the key stakeholders involved in the process of deceased organ donation. In India, as road traffic accidents account for the majority of brain deaths, the police play an important role to ensure legal and ethical practices of organ donation. In many instances, the undue delays in the inquest and postmortem lead to difficulties in completing the donation and also cause distress among the family members who have said yes to organ donation despite their grief. Aim: This study aims to assess the police officers' knowledge of the organ donation process and their practice toward it. Design and Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 627 police officers in the state of Tamil Nadu in India within a period of 18 months. A structured questionnaire with multiple choice questions was used. Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 21 were used to compile and statistically analyze the data collected. The knowledge level and willingness of the officers to follow certain practices were analyzed. Results: It was found that 95.5% of the participants were aware of organ donation. Further analysis revealed that 86.6% of the police personnel were aware of brain death, but only 35.6% were aware of the transplant law, 12.1% knew about the green corridor, and 20.7% about the donor card. Very few participants (9.6%) had experience in processing brain deaths and organ donation cases. Knowledge about postmortem formalities and inquest protocols was unsatisfactory. A significant association between work experience and the knowledge and awareness about organ donation was noted. Conclusions: Including modules on organ donation awareness, transplant law, and hospital protocols in the training syllabus for the recruited personnel, followed by regular refresher courses on the subject, would be the key to enhance the knowledge and work practices of this important group to help ease pain points in the medicolegal cases where organ donation consent is provided by the relatives. A change in the attitude of police officers while handling organ donation cases would have an overall positive impact on the program.
    • Knowledge exchange as a dynamic dissemination tool

      Hutchinson, Aisha; Dance, Cherilyn (Jessica Kingsley, 2015-12-01)
    • Knowledge sharing for enhanced performance in the HEIs using a conceptual framework

      Khilji, Nasrallah; Duan, Yanqing; Tehrani, Jasmine; ; University of Bedfordshire (North American Business Press, 2021-04-30)
      Knowledge sharing is an essential management practice that provides a sustainable competitive advantage in a vibrant and dynamic economy (Kaur, 2019). To achieve an enhanced performance in the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), it is essential to make sure that the teaching and learning system is determined by knowledge sharing approach (Nair and Munusami, 2019). The Higher Education Institutions are required to consider how they could better share knowledge from experts who have it to learners who need to get the best of such expertise (Darling-Hammond et al., 2019). This study examines the knowledge sharing behaviour among academics and leaners in the HEIs by providing a better understanding for their enhanced performance. This is aimed to comprehend the individual acts of knowledge creation and the collective efforts of knowledge sharing adapted in the HEIs towards continuous improvement. A literature review is carried out to propose a conceptual framework of knowledge sharing for enhanced performance in the HEIs.
    • Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Nigerian students toward organ donation

      Ibrahim, Musa Saulawa; Randhawa, Gurch; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2017-09-18)
      The Nigerian transplantation program is evolving but is currently over-reliant on living donors. If deceased donation is to be viable in Nigeria, it is important to ascertain the views of the public. The objective of the study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Nigerian international students toward organ donation. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Nigerian international students of the University of Bedfordshire through the use of a modified self-administered questionnaire. The participants were recruited by means of purposive sampling. Of the 110 questionnaires distributed, 103 were returned fully completed (response rate = 93.6%). A significant majority (93.2%) of the participants are aware of organ donation, and 76.7% have a good knowledge on the subject. Furthermore, more than half (52.8%) of the participants have a positive attitude toward organ donation, and less than half (42.8%) have favorable behavior toward it. Higher knowledge does not correlate to either positive attitude or behavior, but a positive attitude is correlated with favorable behavior toward donation. The attitudes and behavior of the respondents toward organ donation is not commensurate with the level of knowledge they possess. This highlights the urgent need for well-structured educational programs on deceased organ donation. BACKGROUND METHODS RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
    • Knowledge, the curriculum, and democratic education: the curious case of school English

      Belas, Oliver (SAGE Publications, 2019-05-17)
      Debate over subject curricula is apt to descend into internecine squabbles over which (whose?) curriculum is best. Especially so with school English, because its domain(s) of knowledge have commonly been misunderstood, or, perhaps, misrepresented in the government’s programmes of study. After brief consideration of democratic education (problems of its form and meaning), I turn to issues of knowledge and disciplinarity, outlining two conceptions of knowledge – the one constitutive and phenomenological, the other stipulative and social-realist. Drawing on Michael Young and Johan Muller, I argue that, by social-realist standards of objectivity, school English in England -- as currently framed in national curriculum documents -- falls short of the standards of ‘powerful knowledge’ and of a democratic education conceived as social justice. Having considered knowledge and disciplinarity in broad terms, I consider the curricular case of school English, for it seems to me that the curious position of English in our national curriculum has resulted in a model that is either weakly, perhaps even un-, rooted in the network of academic disciplines that make up English studies.
    • Kuwait: why tourism?

      Burns, Peter; Bibbings, Lyn (Taylor and Francis, 2017-07-14)
    • Lamellipodin promotes invasive 3D cancer cell migration via regulated interactions with Ena/VASP and SCAR/WAVE

      Carmona, G.; Perera, U.; Gillett, C.; Naba, A.; Law, Ah-Lai; Sharma, V.P.; Wang, J.; Wyckoff, J.; Balsamo, M.; Mosis, F.; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2016-03-21)
      Cancer invasion is a hallmark of metastasis. The mesenchymal mode of cancer cell invasion is mediated by elongated membrane protrusions driven by the assembly of branched F-actin networks. How deregulation of actin regulators promotes cancer cell invasion is still enigmatic. We report that increased expression and membrane localization of the actin regulator Lamellipodin correlate with reduced metastasis-free survival and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. In agreement, we find that Lamellipodin depletion reduced lung metastasis in an orthotopic mouse breast cancer model. Invasive 3D cancer cell migration as well as invadopodia formation and matrix degradation was impaired upon Lamellipodin depletion. Mechanistically, we show that Lamellipodin promotes invasive 3D cancer cell migration via both actin-elongating Ena/VASP proteins and the Scar/WAVE complex, which stimulates actin branching. In contrast, Lamellipodin interaction with Scar/WAVE but not with Ena/VASP is required for random 2D cell migration. We identified a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism that regulates selective recruitment of these effectors to Lamellipodin: Abl-mediated Lamellipodin phosphorylation promotes its association with both Scar/WAVE and Ena/VASP, whereas Src-dependent phosphorylation enhances binding to Scar/WAVE but not to Ena/VASP. Through these selective, regulated interactions Lamellipodin mediates directional sensing of epidermal growth factor (EGF) gradients and invasive 3D migration of breast cancer cells. Our findings imply that increased Lamellipodin levels enhance Ena/VASP and Scar/WAVE activities at the plasma membrane to promote 3D invasion and metastasis.
    • Landowner responses to financial incentive schemes for recreational access to woodlands in south east England

      Church, Andrew; Ravenscroft, Neil; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 2007-05-23)
      Informed by a growing international literature on the motivations of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owners towards particular management goals, this paper reports the findings of a study into the responses of private and public/non-profit woodland owners to financial incentive schemes related to recreational access in South East England a highly urbanised region with considerable demand for outdoor recreation. The findings indicate that finance is the most important incentive for achieving uptake in these schemes to promote access. However, the propensity of owners to take up any incentive is not driven primarily by financial goals. Rather, it is a function of their predisposition towards the goals of the recreational access incentive scheme and the extent to which these goals are congruent with their self-identity as (largely) custodians of their woodland. In the case of promoting public access to private woodlands the study shows for the first time in the English context that, while few private woodland owners are predisposed towards granting additional access, the ability to deploy access incentives to longer-term stewardship goals may be sufficient to bring them into the scheme. The paper makes the argument that, to be successful, access incentive schemes must find ways of making the access component a central feature of grant aid while also incentivising longer-term management operations.
    • Language assessment literacy for learning-oriented language assessment

      Hamp-Lyons, Liz (Australian Association of Applied Linguistics, 2017-12-16)
       A small-scale and exploratory study explored a set of authentic speaking test video samples from the Cambridge: First (First Certificate of English) speaking test, in order to learn whether, and where, opportunities might be revealed in, or inserted into formal speaking tests, order to provide language assessment literacy opportunities for language teachers teaching in test preparation courses as well as teachers training to become speaking test raters. By paying particular attention to some basic components of effective interaction that we would want an examiner or interlocutor to exhibit if they seek to encourage interactive responses from test candidates. Looking closely at body language (in particular eye contact; intonation, pacing and pausing), management of turn-taking, and elicitation of candidate-candidate interaction we saw ways in which a shift in focus to view tests as learning opportunities is possible: we call this new focus learning-oriented language assessment (LOLA).
    • ‘The language is disgusting and they refer to my disability’: the cyberharassment of disabled people

      Alhaboby, Zhraa Azhr; al-Khateeb, Haider; Barnes, Jim; Short, Emma; ; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2016-10-05)
      Disabled people face hostility and harassment in their socio-cultural environment. The use of electronic communications creates an online context that further reshapes this discrimination. We explored the experiences of 19 disabled victims of cyberharassment. Five themes emerged from the study: disability and health consequences, family involvement, misrepresentation of self, perceived complexity, and lack of awareness and expertise. Cyberharassment incidents against disabled people were influenced by the pre-existing impairment, perceived hate-targeting, and perpetrators faking disability to get closer to victims online. Our findings highlight a growing issue requiring action and proper support.
    • Language learning gains among users of English Liulishuo

      Green, Anthony; O'Sullivan, Barry; LAIX (LAIX, 2019-02-26)
      This study investigated improvements in English language ability (as measured by the British Council Aptis test) among 746 users of the English Liulishuo app, the flagship mobile app produced by LAIX Inc. (NYSE:LAIX), taking courses at three levels over a period of approximately two months.
    • Language testing and validation: an evidence based approach

      Weir, Cyril J. (Palgrave, 2005-01-01)
      Tests for the measurement of language abilities must be constructed according to a coherent validity framework based on the latest developments in theory and practice. This innovative book, by a world authority on language testing, deals with all key aspects of language test design and implementation. It provides a road map to effective testing based on the latest approaches to test validation. A book for all MA students in Applied Linguistics or TESOL, and for professional language teachers
    • Language, trust and transformation: exploring theatre as a research method with migrant youth

      Opfermann, Lena S.; Durham University (Taylor and Francis, 2019-07-29)
      This article explores the challenges and benefits of using theatre as a research method. It questions certain claims and assumptions underlying Augusto Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed and more recent literature on theatre-based research. In particular, it investigates the notion that theatre enables participants to address issues of oppression and create socio-political change. Based on a case study with migrant youth in South Africa, the article firstly argues that certain challenges specific to working with migrants such as differing language skills and a lack of trust may impede genuine dialogic exchange as envisioned by Boal. Secondly, it shows how these challenges can be overcome by incorporating writing exercises, video recordings and embodied communication. Finally, the article argues that theatre-based research can indeed create individual transformations in the form of increased displays of ownership, confidence and hope. These insights contribute to the growing literature on theatre-based research and will be useful for others using similar arts-based approaches.