• Lamellipodin promotes invasive 3D cancer cell migration via regulated interactions with Ena/VASP and SCAR/WAVE

      Carmona, G.; Perera, U.; Gillett, C.; Naba, A.; Law, Ah-Lai; Sharma, V.P.; Wang, J.; Wyckoff, J.; Balsamo, M.; Mosis, F.; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2016-03-21)
      Cancer invasion is a hallmark of metastasis. The mesenchymal mode of cancer cell invasion is mediated by elongated membrane protrusions driven by the assembly of branched F-actin networks. How deregulation of actin regulators promotes cancer cell invasion is still enigmatic. We report that increased expression and membrane localization of the actin regulator Lamellipodin correlate with reduced metastasis-free survival and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. In agreement, we find that Lamellipodin depletion reduced lung metastasis in an orthotopic mouse breast cancer model. Invasive 3D cancer cell migration as well as invadopodia formation and matrix degradation was impaired upon Lamellipodin depletion. Mechanistically, we show that Lamellipodin promotes invasive 3D cancer cell migration via both actin-elongating Ena/VASP proteins and the Scar/WAVE complex, which stimulates actin branching. In contrast, Lamellipodin interaction with Scar/WAVE but not with Ena/VASP is required for random 2D cell migration. We identified a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism that regulates selective recruitment of these effectors to Lamellipodin: Abl-mediated Lamellipodin phosphorylation promotes its association with both Scar/WAVE and Ena/VASP, whereas Src-dependent phosphorylation enhances binding to Scar/WAVE but not to Ena/VASP. Through these selective, regulated interactions Lamellipodin mediates directional sensing of epidermal growth factor (EGF) gradients and invasive 3D migration of breast cancer cells. Our findings imply that increased Lamellipodin levels enhance Ena/VASP and Scar/WAVE activities at the plasma membrane to promote 3D invasion and metastasis.
    • Landowner responses to financial incentive schemes for recreational access to woodlands in south east England

      Church, Andrew; Ravenscroft, Neil; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 2007-05-23)
      Informed by a growing international literature on the motivations of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owners towards particular management goals, this paper reports the findings of a study into the responses of private and public/non-profit woodland owners to financial incentive schemes related to recreational access in South East England a highly urbanised region with considerable demand for outdoor recreation. The findings indicate that finance is the most important incentive for achieving uptake in these schemes to promote access. However, the propensity of owners to take up any incentive is not driven primarily by financial goals. Rather, it is a function of their predisposition towards the goals of the recreational access incentive scheme and the extent to which these goals are congruent with their self-identity as (largely) custodians of their woodland. In the case of promoting public access to private woodlands the study shows for the first time in the English context that, while few private woodland owners are predisposed towards granting additional access, the ability to deploy access incentives to longer-term stewardship goals may be sufficient to bring them into the scheme. The paper makes the argument that, to be successful, access incentive schemes must find ways of making the access component a central feature of grant aid while also incentivising longer-term management operations.
    • Language assessment literacy for learning-oriented language assessment

      Hamp-Lyons, Liz (Australian Association of Applied Linguistics, 2017-12-16)
       A small-scale and exploratory study explored a set of authentic speaking test video samples from the Cambridge: First (First Certificate of English) speaking test, in order to learn whether, and where, opportunities might be revealed in, or inserted into formal speaking tests, order to provide language assessment literacy opportunities for language teachers teaching in test preparation courses as well as teachers training to become speaking test raters. By paying particular attention to some basic components of effective interaction that we would want an examiner or interlocutor to exhibit if they seek to encourage interactive responses from test candidates. Looking closely at body language (in particular eye contact; intonation, pacing and pausing), management of turn-taking, and elicitation of candidate-candidate interaction we saw ways in which a shift in focus to view tests as learning opportunities is possible: we call this new focus learning-oriented language assessment (LOLA).
    • ‘The language is disgusting and they refer to my disability’: the cyberharassment of disabled people

      Alhaboby, Zhraa Azhr; al-Khateeb, Haider; Barnes, Jim; Short, Emma; ; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2016-10-05)
      Disabled people face hostility and harassment in their socio-cultural environment. The use of electronic communications creates an online context that further reshapes this discrimination. We explored the experiences of 19 disabled victims of cyberharassment. Five themes emerged from the study: disability and health consequences, family involvement, misrepresentation of self, perceived complexity, and lack of awareness and expertise. Cyberharassment incidents against disabled people were influenced by the pre-existing impairment, perceived hate-targeting, and perpetrators faking disability to get closer to victims online. Our findings highlight a growing issue requiring action and proper support.
    • Language learning gains among users of English Liulishuo

      Green, Anthony; O'Sullivan, Barry; LAIX (LAIX, 2019-02-26)
      This study investigated improvements in English language ability (as measured by the British Council Aptis test) among 746 users of the English Liulishuo app, the flagship mobile app produced by LAIX Inc. (NYSE:LAIX), taking courses at three levels over a period of approximately two months.
    • Language testing and validation: an evidence based approach

      Weir, Cyril J. (Palgrave, 2005-01-01)
      Tests for the measurement of language abilities must be constructed according to a coherent validity framework based on the latest developments in theory and practice. This innovative book, by a world authority on language testing, deals with all key aspects of language test design and implementation. It provides a road map to effective testing based on the latest approaches to test validation. A book for all MA students in Applied Linguistics or TESOL, and for professional language teachers
    • Language, trust and transformation: exploring theatre as a research method with migrant youth

      Opfermann, Lena S.; Durham University (Taylor and Francis, 2019-07-29)
      This article explores the challenges and benefits of using theatre as a research method. It questions certain claims and assumptions underlying Augusto Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed and more recent literature on theatre-based research. In particular, it investigates the notion that theatre enables participants to address issues of oppression and create socio-political change. Based on a case study with migrant youth in South Africa, the article firstly argues that certain challenges specific to working with migrants such as differing language skills and a lack of trust may impede genuine dialogic exchange as envisioned by Boal. Secondly, it shows how these challenges can be overcome by incorporating writing exercises, video recordings and embodied communication. Finally, the article argues that theatre-based research can indeed create individual transformations in the form of increased displays of ownership, confidence and hope. These insights contribute to the growing literature on theatre-based research and will be useful for others using similar arts-based approaches.
    • Languishing in 'rent-a-Marx/Margaret rhetoric': the phono-politics of Douglas Oliver's The Infant and the Pearl

      Farmer, Gareth; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2019-06-21)
      In The Infant and the Pearl (1985), the poet Douglas Oliver draws on the alliterative and allegorical features of mediaeval verse to create a dream-like satire of Britain under Margaret Thatcher. Once a central feature of most Old English poetry, since Chaucer, alliteration and rhyme have often been used in the service of parody and satire. But, how do complex sound-structures aid satire and generate political content? Drawing on Oliver’s poetic and critical work, as well as contemporary research into prosody and politics, this article argues that the sound patterning in The Infant and the Pearl creates a caricatured version of Thatcher’s ‘politically unsound’ Britain. Oliver uses sonic patterns to create an artificial parody of the bathetic ‘uncommon rhetoric’ of consumerism and the ‘false pearls’ of the political classes. Far from being an accessory to meaning, the sound structures are vehicles for parodying the operations of the rhetoric of the ‘unreal’ apparent in social and political discourse. Oliver envisages sound patterning – as performed with every private and public reading – as offering recalibrations of people’s experience of language and the world, as well as leading to glimpses of a communality beyond political and social division.
    • Laplacian group sparse modeling of human actions

      Zhang, Xiangrong; Yang, Hao; Jiao, L.C.; Yang, Yang; Dong, Feng; Xidian University; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2014-02-20)
      Recently, many local-feature based methods have been proposed for feature learning to obtain a better high-level representation of human behavior. Most of the previous research ignores the structural information existing among local features in the same video sequences, while it is an important clue to distinguish ambiguous actions. To address this issue, we propose a Laplacian group sparse coding for human behavior representation. Unlike traditional methods such as sparse coding, our approach prefers to encode a group of relevant features simultaneously and meanwhile allow as less atoms as possible to participate in the approximation so that video-level sparsity is guaranteed. By incorporating Laplacian regularization the method is capable to ensure the similar approximation of closely related local features and the structural information is successfully preserved. Thus, a compact but discriminative human behavior representation is achieved. Besides, the objective of our model is solved with a closed-form solution, which reduces the computational cost significantly. Promising results on several popular benchmark datasets prove the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
    • Large Eddy Simulation analysis on confined swirling flows in a gas turbine swirl burner

      Liu, Tao; Bai, Fuqiang; Zhao, Zixuan; Lin, Yuzhen; Du, Qing; Peng, Zhijun; Tianjin University; University of Ottawa; University of Bedfordshire; Beihang University (MDPI, 2017-12-07)
      This paper describes a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) investigation into flow fields in a model gas turbine combustor equipped with a swirl burner. A probability density function was used to describe the interaction physics of chemical reaction and turbulent flow as liquid fuel was directly injected into the combustion chamber and rapidly mixed with the swirling air. Simulation results showed that heat release during combustion accelerated the axial velocity motion and made the recirculation zone more compact. As the combustion was taking place under lean burn conditions, NO emissions was less than 10 ppm. Finally, the effects of outlet contraction on swirling flows and combustion instability were investigated. Results suggest that contracted outlet can enhance the generation of a Central Vortex Core (CVC) flow structure. As peak RMS of velocity fluctuation profiles at center-line suggested the turbulent instability can be enhanced by CVC motion, the Power Spectrum Density (PSD) amplitude also explained that the oscillation at CVC position was greater than other places. Both evidences demonstrated that outlet contraction can increase the instability of the central field.  [m1]Is’t right? Yes.
    • Large shareholding and firm value in the Alternative Investment Market (AIM)

      Mortazian, Mona; Tabaghdehi, Seyedeh Asieh H.; Mase, Bryan (Springer, 2018-11-30)
      This paper investigates the impact of non-managerial and managerial blockholders on the value of the firms listed in the Alternative Investment Market (AIM). This study mainly investigates whether the effect of blockholders on firm value is due to the AIM high ownership concentration and low investor protection. The primary empirical finding, using GMM, justifies that non-managerial and managerial blockholders in the AIM affect the firm value in different ways. Non-managerial blockholders in the AIM improve the firm value by monitoring managers when their block sizes are up to 32%. However, when their block sizes exceed 32%, the blockholders expropriate other shareholders.
    • Last resort or best interest? exploring risk and safety factors that inform rates of relocation for young people abused in extra-familial settings

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Wroe, Lauren; Bernard, D.; (Oxford University Press, 2021-05-06)
      When young people are harmed in extra-familial settings children’s services may place them into care at a distance from their home authority to remove them from contexts in which they are considered ‘at risk’. Guidance and regulation suggest such intervention be used as a last resort and only in a child’s best interests. Using survey and interview data, this paper examines how relocations are used in response to extra-familial harm in 13 children’s services departments in England and Wales – exploring the extent to which they are intended to mitigate risk, or build safety, for young people. Findings demonstrate that rates at which relocations were used varied across participating services. Interview data suggests that variation may be informed by the strategic position a service takes on the use of relocation, the goal(s) of interventions used in cases of extra-familial harm, and the target of these interventions. In considering each of these factors the authors recommend further study into the national (varying) rates of relocation and the role of those who review care-plans for relocated young people; both intending to create conditions in which young people can safely return to their communities should they choose to do so
    • Laughter and dying: Stella Benson's Hope against hope and other stories, and Tobit transplanted

      Darwood, Nicola (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020-01-29)
      The novels and short stories of Stella Benson (1982-1933) cover a wide range of issues including suffrage, the morality of war and the rights of women through a mixture of realism, fantasy and satire.  Drawing on a range of twentieth and twenty first century theoretical approaches relating to humour and satire this essay considers Benson’s use of humour and satire in her collection of short stories Hope Against Hope and Other Stories (1931) and Tobit Transplanted (1931). Throughout both texts, Benson explores human frailties, inviting the reader to view her characters with an ironic detachment.  This essay argues that this use of comedy highlights the tension between humour and subject matter, and provides an insight into both her life and 1930s society.
    • The law of international responsibility

      Crawford, James; Pellet, Alain; Olleson, Simon (Oxford University Press, 2010)
    • Lay beliefs on assisted reproduction technology in the UK and Greece: a repertory grid study

      Triantafillidou, A.; Ardino, V.; Asirnakopoulou, K.; Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire (2008-09-30)
      Background: This study explored cultural differences in the attitudes of UK and Greek lay people towards Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART). Methods: Using a Personal Construct Explanatory Model (Kelly, 1955) and Life Repertory Grids, we gathered data from N¼10 Greek and N¼10 British people. The majority (N¼17) were female and 40% were 36–45 years old. Data were analysed through a Principal Components Analysis and a Content Analysis. Findings: We found both similarities and differences between British and Greek people. Happiness, Control, Family, and Stress were among the main Components and Categories identified. The extent, however, to which the Components and Categories were identified in the two samples varied widely. Discussion: Cultural influences play an important role in shaping people’s views towards ART. It is argued that where Health Psychologists provide ART related consultancy or educational programmes, such activities may benefit from a culturally sensitive approach.
    • Layered and linking research partnerships: learning from YOUR World Research in Ethiopia and Nepal

      Johnson, Vicky; Admassu, Anannia; Church, Andrew; Healey, Jill; Mathema, Sujeeta (Institute of Development Studies, 2019-05-01)
      This article draws on learning from the YOUR World Research project in Ethiopia and Nepal, which uses the socioecological Change‑scape framework to understand how participants in research need to be understood within a landscape of changing institutional, environmental, and political contexts. The article explores whether trustful relationships, ownership, and commitment can bring about more effective societal change through research. Through group discussion and reflective perspectives, the authors draw out possible indicators of successful partnership from the different contexts in which YOUR World Research was working. These include histories of interpersonal relationships; shared vision and motivations; building ownership; shared platforms and spaces for dialogue; and flexibility to respond to shocks and changes in context. The article suggests that whilst being realistic about the power and politics of partnership, there are mechanisms in partnership models that can help support high-quality rigorous research whilst creating impact at local, national, and international levels.
    • Laying the foundations for physical literacy in Wales: the contribution of the Foundation Phase to the development of physical literacy

      Wainwright, Nalda; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Whitehead, Margaret; Williams, Andy; Kirk, David (Routledge, 2018-03-27)
      Background: The Foundation Phase in Wales is a play-based curriculum for pupils aged 3–7 years old. Children learn through more holistic areas of learning in place of traditional subjects. As such, the subject of physical education in its traditional form no longer exists for pupils under the age of 7 in Wales. In light of the role of physical education in developing physical literacy and in particular the importance of this age group for laying the foundations of movement for lifelong engagement in physical activity, the disappearance of physical education from the curriculum could be deemed to be a concern. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the Foundation Phase as a naturalistic intervention and examine its contribution to the development of physical literacy. Participants and setting: Participants included year 1 pupils (N = 49) aged 5 and 6 from two schools in contrasting locations. A smaller group within each class was selected through purposive sampling for the repeated measures assessments (N = 18). Research design and methods: A complementarity mixed-method design combined quantitative and qualitative methods to study the Foundation Phase as a naturalistic intervention. Quantitative data were generated with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 administered to the sample group of children from both schools as a quasi-repeated measure, the physical competence subscale of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance and the Leuven Involvement Scale for Young Children. Qualitative data were generated throughout the study from the analysis of video and field notes through participant observation. Data from the mixed methods were analysed through complementarity to give a rich insight into pupils’ progress and experiences in relation to physical literacy. Results: Overall analysis of the data from TGMD-2 showed significant improvements in the Gross Motor Quotient and Locomotor skills from T1 to T3, but no significant improvement in object control. Data from qualitative methods were analysed to explore processes that may account for these findings. Video and field notes complement the quantitative data highlighting that children were developing their locomotor skills in many aspects of their learning. Observations using the Leuven Involvement Scale indicated that children had high levels of involvement in their learning and apparent in video and field notes was pupils’ motivation for movement. Paired sample t-tests (N = 18) conducted on the Harter and Pike perceived physical competence six-item score subscales (T1 and T3) indicated a significant difference in the mean perceived physical competence scores on the six-item scale between T1and T3. Qualitative data explored pupils’ confidence for movement in many areas of learning. Conclusion: The combination of quantitative and qualitative data indicates that the Foundation Phase is an early childhood curriculum that lays the foundations of physical literacy with the exception of aspects of the physical competence, specifically object control skills. Although these skills only contribute to psychomotor aspects of physical literacy they are strongly associated with later engagement in physical activity. The development of specific physical skills such as object control skills may need more specialist input with early childhood pedagogy teachers trained in motor development to see significant improvements.
    • Leadership for race and social justice in higher education

      Maylor, Uvanney; University of Bedfordshire (Springer International Publishing, 2018-12-31)
      This chapter explores the goals of the Equality Act and educational leadership as dictated by government policy in relation to school leaders, and as part of this, considers the role of higher education institutions in promoting race equality in educational leadership in higher education. The chapter questions whether such a state is desirable and achievable in twenty-first century Britain particularly at a time when greater emphasis is given by universities to student (rather than staff) experience and NSS scores/league tables which promote student experience, and conducting race equality impact assessments are no longer a compulsory requirement. In examining the relevance of social justice in educational leadership, the chapter is less concerned with leadership styles or roles and focuses instead on White constructions/perceptions of who can occupy leadership positions. As such, the chapter explores the implications for universities in facilitating diverse but equitable leadership in higher education from a social justice perspective.
    • Learner experience in hybrid virtual worlds: interacting with pedagogical agents

      Christopoulos, Athanasios; Conrad, Marc; Shukla, Mitul; University of Bedfordshire (SciTePress, 2019-12-31)
      Studies related to the Virtual Learning approach are conducted almost exclusively in Distance Learning contexts and focus on the development of frameworks or taxonomies that classify the different ways of teaching and learning. Researchers may be dealing with the topic of interactivity but mainly focusing on the interactions that take place within the virtual world. However, in non-distance learning contexts, where students not only share the virtual but also the physical space, different types of interplay can be observed. In this paper, we classify these ‘hybrid’ interactions and further correlate them with the impact that the instructional design decisions have on motivation and engagement. In particular, a series of experiments were conducted in the context of different Hybrid Virtual Learning units, with Computer Science and Technology students participating in the study, whilst, the chosen instructional design approach included the employment of different Pedagogical Agents who aimed at increasing the incentives for interaction and therefore, engagement. The conclusions provide suggestions and guidelines to educators and instructional designers who wish to offer interactive and engaging learning activities to their students.