• Pakistani young people’s views on barriers to accessing mental health services

      Ali, Nasreen; Mclachlan, Niel; Kanwar, Shama; Randhawa, Gurch (Taylor & Francis, 2016-11-08)
      There is extensive literature acknowledging inequalities in health, particularly mental health services for adults, children and young people from Black and minority ethnic communities in the UK. However, there is little existing evidence on UK Pakistani young people’s views of mental health and mental health services. Four focus-group discussions were carried out (n = 33 participants) at local schools, madrasas and a youth group; and data analysed using a framework approach. The findings from this study highlighted a number of barriers to accessing mental health services. Participants had a poor awareness of mental health services and treatment options. Most respondents referred to GPs as their first point of contact for mental health concerns. Knowledge of treatment options for mental illness focused mainly on counselling. There was little awareness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or family-based CBT as a therapeutic regime. Based on the findings of this study it is clear that young people have a poor awareness of mental health services, specifically child and adolescent mental health services services and treatment options for mental illness. Participants suggested a culturally appropriate mental health awareness intervention for young people. It was proposed that this took the form of community-based ambassadors facilitating knowledge exchange and discussion at community level
    • Paper-based vs computer-based writing assessment: divergent, equivalent or complementary?

      Chan, Sathena Hiu Chong (Elsevier, 2018-05-16)
      Writing on a computer is now commonplace in most post-secondary educational contexts and workplaces, making research into computer-based writing assessment essential. This special issue of Assessing Writing includes a range of articles focusing on computer-based writing assessments. Some of these have been designed to parallel an existing paper-based assessment, others have been constructed as computer-based from the beginning. The selection of papers addresses various dimensions of the validity of computer-based writing assessment use in different contexts and across levels of L2 learner proficiency. First, three articles deal with the impact of these two delivery modes, paper-baser-based or computer-based, on test takers’ processing and performance in large-scale high-stakes writing tests; next, two articles explore the use of online writing assessment in higher education; the final two articles evaluate the use of technologies to provide feedback to support learning.
    • The PARAChute project: remote monitoring of posture and gait for fall prevention

      Hewson, David; Duchêne, Jacques; Charpillet, François; Saboune, Jamal; Michel-Pellegrino, Valerie; Amoud, Hassan; Doussot, Michel; Paysant, Jean; Boyer, Anne; Hogrel, Jean-Yves (Springer, 2007-01-01)
      Falls in the elderly are a major public health problem due to both their frequency and their medical and social consequences. In France alone, more than two million people aged over 65 years old fall each year, leading to more than 9 000 deaths, in particular in those over 75 years old (more than 8 000 deaths). This paper describes the PARAChute project, which aims to develop a methodology that will enable the detection of an increased risk of falling in community-dwelling elderly. The methods used for a remote noninvasive assessment for static and dynamic balance assessments and gait analysis are described. The final result of the project has been the development of an algorithm for movement detection during gait and a balance signature extracted from a force plate. A multicentre longitudinal evaluation of balance has commenced in order to validate the methodologies and technologies developed in the project.
    • The paradoxical pedagogy of creative writing

      Jarvis, Timothy; Pelletier, Caroline (Polity Press, 2018-06-27)
    • Parallel marching blocks: a practical isosurfacing algorithm for large data on many-core architectures

      Liu, Baoquan; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Dong, Feng; Wu, Enhua; University of Bedfordshire; University of Macau (Wiley, 2016-07-04)
      Interactive isosurface visualisation has been made possible by mapping algorithms to GPU architectures. However, current state-of-the-art isosurfacing algorithms usually consume large amounts of GPU memory owing to the additional acceleration structures they require. As a result, the continued limitations on available GPU memory mean that they are unable to deal with the larger datasets that are now increasingly becoming prevalent. This paper proposes a new parallel isosurface-extraction algorithm that exploits the blocked organisation of the parallel threads found in modern many-core platforms to achieve fast isosurface extraction and reduce the associated memory requirements. This is achieved by optimising thread co-operation within thread-blocks and reducing redundant computation; ultimately, an indexed triangular mesh could be produced. Experiments have shown that the proposed algorithm is much faster (up to 10×) than state-of-the-art GPU algorithms and has a much smaller memory footprint, enabling it to handle much larger datasets (up to 64×) on the same GPU. 
    • Paraphyly of the genus Boehmeria (Urticaceae): a response to Liang et al. ‘Relationships among Chinese Boehmeria species and the evolution of various clade’

      Monro, Alexandre; Dodsworth, Steven; Fu, Long‑Fei; Friis, Ib; Wilmot-Dear, Christine M.; Maurin, Olivier; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; University of Bedfordshire; Chinese Academy of Sciences; Natural History Museum of Denmark (Springer, 2020-12-19)
      Boehmeria, as currently circumscribed, comprises 52 species and has a pantropical distribution. Liang et al. propose a sectional classification of Boehmeria based on the phylogenetic analysis of SNP data for 20 species and an additional 10 subspecific taxa of these at the rank of variety or form. They restrict their sampling to species documented in China. We found many shortcomings in the sampling and analyses which we feel have resulted in a misleading phylogeny for the genus and the economically important fibre-plant, Boehmeria nivea. By sampling only Chinese species of this genus for their in-group and using a single distantly related outgroup, Liang et al. have failed to capture the diversity of the genus and so erroneously concluded that it forms a monophyletic group. Previous published research clearly demonstrates that Boehmeria is paraphyletic and polyphyletic, comprising at least four monophyletic groupings most closely related to several genera within the Boehmerieae. For these reasons, the sections that Liang et al. (Ind Crops Prod 148:112092, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2020.112092) propose for Boehmeria are not effective tools for its classification. The important fibre-plant, Boehmeria nivea, should therefore not be considered as part of the genus Boehmeria for the purposes of crop breeding, but as sister to Archiboehmeria. Breeding programmes for ramie should therefore focus on populations and germplasm of Archiboehmeria atrata. We conclude that poor taxon sampling, overlooking relevant molecular and taxonomic literature, internal conflict within their SNP data and the overinterpretation of low support values has resulted in the erroneous conclusion that Boehmeria represents a monophyletic or ‘natural’ genus.
    • Parental attachment style and young persons’ adjustment to bereavement

      Sochos, Antigonos; Aleem, Sadia; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2021-05-26)
      Background: Previous clinical and theoretical work supports the idea that parental attachment style and complicated grief affect young persons’ mental health, but empirical research investigating their impact on young person’s adjustment to bereavement is lacking. Objective: This study investigated the impact of parental attachment style and complicated grief on young person’s adjustment to bereavement. It was hypothesised that a) parental attachment anxiety, avoidance, and complicated grief would moderate the link between bereavement experience and psychological distress in young persons and b) parental attachment style would moderate the link between parental complicated grief and psychological distress experienced by bereaved young persons. Method: This was a questionnaire-based case control study, involving two participant groups: 133 parents of young persons who had experienced the loss of the loved one and 101 parents of young persons with no bereavement experience. Results: Bereaved young persons experienced greater externalising and internalising problems than the non-bereaved only when they were raised by an anxiously attached parent, but when parental attachment anxiety was low, bereaved children had fewer problems than the non-bereaved. When parental attachment avoidance was low, bereaved children also had fewer externalising problems than the non-bereaved. Among the bereaved, high levels of parental attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance amplified the link between parental complicated grief and child post-traumatic stress, while in the presence of low parental anxiety, complicated grief was negatively associated with an immediate distressing response and numbing-dissociative symptomatology. Conclusions: Psychological vulnerability in bereaved young persons was associated with an insecure parental attachment style.
    • Parents' expectations and experiences of the 6-week baby check: a qualitative study in primary care

      Gilworth, Gill; Milton, Sarah; Chater, Angel M.; Nazareth, Irwin; Roposch, Andreas; Green, Judith; King's College London; University of Bedfordshire; University College London (Royal College of General Practitioners, 2020-11-18)
      Background: The Newborn and Infant Physical Examination (NIPE) programme requires all babies to have a comprehensive health check at 6-8 weeks of age. These are typically completed by GPs. Although person-centred care has achieved prominence in maternity care policy in recent years, there is limited empirical evidence on what parents and/or carers expect from the check, and how far experiences meet their needs. Aim: To explore the expectations and experiences of parents attending their GP for a baby check. Design & setting: A qualitative study was undertaken in primary care in London. Method: Content analysis was undertaken of transcripts of semi-structured interviews. Interviews were conducted with a total of 16 participants (14 mothers and two fathers) who had recently attended for a 6-week check for their baby. Results: Despite the availability of plentiful sources of general advice on infants' health and development, a thorough check by a trusted GP was an important milestone for most parents. They had few specific expectations of the check in terms of what examinations were undertaken, but even experienced parents anticipated reassurance about their baby's normal development. Many also hoped for reassurance about their own parenting. Parents appreciated GPs who explained what they were doing during the examination; space to raise any concerns; and combined mother and baby checks. Referrals to secondary care were generally experienced as reassuring rather than a source of anxiety. Conclusion: The baby check meets needs beyond those of the NIPE screening programme. Protecting the time for a thorough consultation is important for parents at what can be a vulnerable time.
    • Parents’ expectations and experiences of the 6-week baby check: a qualitative study in primary care

      Gilworth, Gill; Milton, Sarah; Chater, Angel M.; Nazareth, Irwin; Roposch, Andreas; Green, Judith; King's College London; University of Bedfordshire; University College London (Royal College of General Practitioners, 2020-11-18)
      Background The Newborn and Infant Physical Examination (NIPE) programme requires all babies to have a comprehensive health check at 6–8 weeks of age. These are typically completed by GPs. Although person-centred care has achieved prominence in maternity care policy in recent years, there is limited empirical evidence on what parents and/or carers expect from the check, and how far experiences meet their needs. Aim  To explore the expectations and experiences of parents attending their GP for a baby check. Design & setting A qualitative study was undertaken in primary care in London. Method Content analysis was undertaken of transcripts of semi-structured interviews. Interviews were conducted with a total of 16 participants (14 mothers and two fathers) who had recently attended for a 6-week check for their baby. Results Despite the availability of plentiful sources of general advice on infants’ health and development, a thorough check by a trusted GP was an important milestone for most parents. They had few specific expectations of the check in terms of what examinations were undertaken, but even experienced parents anticipated reassurance about their baby’s normal development. Many also hoped for reassurance about their own parenting. Parents appreciated GPs who explained what they were doing during the examination; space to raise any concerns; and combined mother and baby checks. Referrals to secondary care were generally experienced as reassuring rather than a source of anxiety. Conclusion The baby check meets needs beyond those of the NIPE screening programme. Protecting the time for a thorough consultation is important for parents at what can be a vulnerable time.
    • Parents’ experiences of complementary feeding among a United Kingdom culturally diverse and deprived community

      Cook, Erica Jane; Powell, Faye; Ali, Nasreen; Penn-Jones, Catrin; Ochieng, Bertha; Randhawa, Gurch; University of Bedfordshire; DeMontfort University (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2020-11-09)
      Complementary feeding practices and adherence to health recommendations are influenced by a range of different and often interrelating factors such as socio-economic and cultural factors. However, the factors underlying these associations are often complex with less awareness of how complementary feeding approaches vary across the UK’s diverse population. This paper describes a qualitative investigation undertaken in a deprived and culturally diverse community in the UK which aimed to explore parents’ knowledge, beliefs and practices of complementary feeding. One hundred and ten mothers and fathers, self-identified as being White British, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black African/Caribbean or Polish took part in twenty-four focus group discussions, organised by age group, sex and ethnicity. The findings revealed that most parents initiated complementary feeding before the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendation of 6 months. Early initiation was strongly influenced by breast feeding practices alongside the extent to which parents believed that their usual milk; that is, breastmilk or formula was fulfilling their infants' nutritional needs. The composition of diet and parents' approach to complementary feeding was closely aligned to traditional cultural practices; however, some contradictions were noted. The findings also acknowledge the pertinent role of the father in influencing the dietary practices of the wider household. Learning about both the common and unique cultural feeding attitudes and practices held by parents may help us to tailor healthy complementary feeding advice in the context of increasing diversity in the United Kingdom.
    • Parsec: a state channel for the Internet of Value

      Jaiswal, Amit Kumar (2018-07-30)
      We propose Parsec, a web-scale State channel for the Internet of Value to exterminate the consensus bottleneck in Blockchain by leveraging a network of state channels which enable to robustly transfer value off-chain. It acts as an infrastructure layer developed on top of Ethereum Blockchain, as a network protocol which allows coherent routing and interlocking channel transfers for trade-off between parties. A web-scale solution for state channels is implemented to enable a layer of value transfer to the internet. Existing network protocol on State Channels include Raiden for Ethereum and Lightning Network for Bitcoin. However, we intend to leverage existing web-scale technologies used by large Internet companies such as Uber, LinkedIn or Netflix. We use Apache Kafka to scale the global payment operation to trillions of operations per day enabling near-instant, low-fee, scalable, and privacy-sustainable payments. Our architecture follows Event Sourcing pattern which solves current issues of payment solutions such as scaling, transfer, interoperability, low-fees, micropayments and to name a few. To the best of knowledge, our proposed model achieve better performance than state-of-the-art lightning network on the Ethereum based (fork) cryptocoins.
    • Part segregation based on particle swarm optimisation for assembly design in additive manufacturing

      Maiyar, Lohithaksha M.; Singh, Sube; Prabhu, Vittal; Tiwari, Manoj Kumar (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2019-05-05)
      Minimising total production time in the additive or layered manufacturing is a critical concern, and in this respect, the idea of balancing assembly time and build time is rapidly gaining research attention. The proposed work intends to provide benefit in terms of reduced lead time to customers in a collaborative environment with simultaneous part printing. This paper formulates a mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) model to evaluate the near optimal threshold area and support material allocation while segregating parts for a single material additive manufacturing set-up. The resulting time minimisation model is finitely bounded with respect to support material volume, total production time and total assembly cost constraints. A novel swarm intelligence-based part segregation procedure is proposed to determine the number of part assemblies and part division scheme that adheres to cross-sectional shape, cross-sectional area, and height restrictions. The proposed approach is illustrated and evaluated for objects with regular as well as free-form surfaces using two different hypothetically simulated real size 3D models. Results indicate that the proposed approach is able to reduce the total amount of manufacturing time in comparison with single part build time for all the tested cases.
    • Part-time students in transition: supporting a successful start to higher education

      Goodchild, Allyson; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2017-12-21)
      The transition into higher education is a critical time for all students. A positive early experience provides a strong foundation for future academic success whilst a negative experience can be destabilising for a new learner. To date, research has primarily focused on full-time undergraduates in order to explain the reasons for high attrition rates at the end of the first year. Less is known about the experiences of part-time undergraduates despite the fact that they make up over one quarter of the total student population (HESA, 2015). This article reports on a study to investigate the initial experiences of a group of part-time undergraduates who have chosen to undertake a degree at a small study centre run by one university. Using a mixed methods research approach, the research captured the lived reality of the experience and identified the contributing and negating factors that can influence a successful transition. Perceptions of the level and type of support provided for students during transition were gained from both staff and students. The findings confirm a heterogeneous group. Despite being highly motivated, the early transition period was generally characterised by a sense of trepidation and self-doubt as students took their first steps in higher education. The research highlights the complexity of the initial decision-making process for part-time students and the barriers they face. It concludes that a flexible but unified approach, involving tutors and the wider support services, is needed, as unique students require unique responses to their transition needs.
    • The participation of young people in child sexual exploitation services: a scoping review of the literature

      Brodie, Isabelle; D'Arcy, Kate; Harris, Julie Philippa; Roker, Debi; Shuker, Lucie; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-01-10)
      This is a scoping review of the literature which focuses on the participation of young people in child sexual exploitation services.  The review is part of the Alexi Project, which involves an evaluation of the CSEFA Hub and Spoke services in England. The review aims to develop understanding of the concept of participation and the nature of effective participatory practice in the context of child sexual exploitation services. It has taken place between September 2015 and April 2016. The review focuses on the following questions: • How is ‘participation’ of young people in CSE services conceptualised in the research, policy and professional literature? • How explicit is the policy requirement for children and young people’s participation in the processes associated with assessment, planning and review and what evidence exists regarding the implementation and/or effectiveness of these processes? • What evidence exists regarding the nature of the experience of participation, and its impact, from the perspectives of young people, parents and carers, and professionals? • What evidence exists regarding the conditions that need to be in place to make participative working possible and effective for different groups of CSE affected young people? • What evidence exists regarding the replicability of participative models?
    • Participation that matters [Editorial]

      Knight, Julia; Weedon, Alexis; University of Bedfordshire; University of Sunderland (SAGE, 2013-08-31)
    • Participatory peer research methodology: an effective method for obtaining young people’s perspectives on transitions from care to adulthood?

      Lushey, Clare J.; Munro, Emily (SAGE, 2014-11-21)
      Peer research has the potential to empower young people to participate in research by minimising power imbalances between researchers and participants; this may reduce bias and promote improved understanding to inform policy and practice. However, these benefits are not automatic; the relative inexperience of peer researchers adds layers of complexity to the research process. Moreover, the validity of findings from research adopting less traditional methods may be questioned and policy makers may be cautious about accepting this evidence, thus limiting its contribution and impact. This paper explores the advancement of participatory peer researcher methodology in research with children in and leaving care and ethical, practical and data quality issues that arose in two studies exploring young people’s transitions from care to adulthood. It concludes that the peer research methodology can yield rich data but that adequate resources and effective research management are crucial. The authors also caution against a reductionist approach that privileges peer research methodology above other methods of inquiry in the study of transitions from care to adulthood.
    • Partners in practice: developing integrated learning opportunities on the Frontline child and family social work qualifying programme

      Domakin, Alison; Curry, Liz (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2017-08-23)
      The Frontline programme is a social work qualifying route, in England, featuring a different approach to curriculum design and delivery. Students are based in groups of 4, learning through practicing social work in a statutory child and family social work setting, alongside a Consultant Social Worker (in the role of practice educator). They are also supported by an Academic Tutor who works in partnership with the Consultant Social Worker to facilitate learning. A weekly “unit meeting” is a foundational aspect of the programme, providing opportunities for in-depth discussion, teaching, and reflection on practice with families. The authors worked together over the first 2 cohorts of the programme and undertook action research to explore the learning opportunities that arise when academic staff and practitioners work side by side to support student learning in this model. Three broad themes were identified which were considered to be significant in helping students to learn which are explored in the paper: Learning through engaging in joint dialogue about practice in a unit meeting The influence of relationships on learning in social work The importance of a connected model of learning which has practice with children and families at its heart.
    • Passion, pathways and potential in dance: research report

      Redding, Emma; Nordin-Bates, Sanna; Aujla, Imogen; Trinity Laban (Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance, 2011-01-01)
      Through a groundbreaking collaboration between Trinity Laban dance science researchers and the Centres for Advanced Training (CATs) across England, almost 800 young dancers took part in an interdisciplinary, longitudinal research project into dance talent development. Funded for a 3-year period by the Leverhulme Trust and the Department for Education, the research comprised investigations into the psychology, physiology, anthropometry, injury, adherence, and creativity of this talented cohort of young dancers. Our combination of quantitative and qualitative findings demonstrate that CAT dancers exhibited steadily increasing levels of physical fitness, high and stable levels of psychological well-being, low to moderate levels of injury and dropout, and positive creativity experiences. The CATs thus appeared to be nurturing young talent in an effective and healthy way. Findings are summarised under seven main headings.
    • Passive localization through light flicker fingerprinting

      Munir, Bilal; Dyo, Vladimir (IEEE, 2019-08-22)
      In this paper, we show that the flicker waveforms of various CFL and LED lamp models exhibit distinctive waveform patterns due to harmonic distortions of rectifiers and voltage regulators, the key components of modern lamp drivers. We then propose a passive localization technique based on fingerprinting these distortions that occur naturally in indoor environments and thus requires no infrastructure or additional equipment. The novel technique uses principal component analysis (PCA) to extract the most important signal features from the flicker frequency spectra followed by kNN clustering and neural net- work classifiers to identify a light source based on its flicker signature. The evaluation on 39 flicker patterns collected from 8 residential locations demonstrates that the technique can identify a location within a house with up to 90% accuracy and identify an individual house from a set of houses with an average accuracy of 86.3%.
    • Pathways into and out of organised crime

      Pitts, John; Hope, T.; Hurley, M.; McGibbon, I. (Greater Manchester Police, 2015-12-01)