• Race and educational leadership: the influence of research methods and critical theorising in understanding representation, roles and ethnic disparities

      Maylor, Uvanney; Roberts, Lorna; Linton, Kenisha; Arday, Jason; University of Bedfordshire; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Greenwich; Durham University (SAGE, 2021-06-29)
      Editorial. The special issue offers new knowledge about racialised educational experiences by shedding light on racialised leadership in school and higher education in diverse geographical and educational contexts in England, Canada, America and South Africa through a mix of research methods (phenomenological, longitudinal, documentary, semi-structured interviews), analytical (content and textual analysis) and theoretical approaches (critical race theory [CRT], critical ecological). This special issue prioritises the centring of educational leaders’ lived experiences and their voices alongside the research methods used to illuminate the nuances associated with race and educational leadership in schools and higher education. The prism of race enables us to add new educational leadership insights to the field associated with ethnicity, gender, culturally constructed notions of leadership, intersectionality and/or geographical location. The findings highlight implications for researching race and educational leadership.
    • Racial and ethnic differences in falls among older adults: a systematic review and meta‑analysis

      Wehner‑Hewson, Natasha; Watts, Paul; Buscombe, Richard; Bourne, Nicholas; Hewson, David; (Springer Nature, 2021-11-16)
      The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine whether differences in reported fall rates exist between different ethnic groups. Searches were carried out on four databases: Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, and Web of Science. Only English language studies with community-dwelling participants aged 60 + years were included. Studies also needed to compare fall prevalence for at least two or more ethnic groups. Two reviewers independently screened all articles and evaluated study quality. Twenty-three articles were included for systematic review, and meta-analyses were carried out on the 16 retrospective studies that reported falls in the previous 12 months. The Asian group demonstrated significantly lower fall prevalence than all other ethnic groups at 13.89% (10.87, 16.91). The Hispanic group had a fall prevalence of 18.54% (12.95, 24.13), closely followed by the Black group at 18.60% (13.27, 23.93). The White group had the highest prevalence at 23.77% (18.66, 28.88). Some studies provided adjusted estimates of effect statistics for the odds/risk of falls, which showed that differences still existed between some ethnic groups even after adjusting for other risk factors. Overall, differences in fall prevalence do appear to exist between different ethnic groups, although the reasons for these differences currently remain undetermined and require further investigation. These findings highlight the need to provide more ethnically tailored responses to public health challenges, which could potentially increase the adherence to prevention interventions, and allow for a more targeted use of resources.
    • A radical take on co-production? community partner leadership in research

      Martikke, Susanne; Church, Andrew; Hart, Angie (Bristol University Press: Policy Press, 2018-12-19)
    • Radio spectrum support for timely and reliable communication over vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs)

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; Eze, Joy C. (SciTePress, 2017-04-24)
      This paper studied the required amount of radio spectral resource enough to support timely and reliable vehicular communication via vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs). The study focussed on both DSRC/WAVE and the European standard ITS-G5 that are based on recently approved IEEE 802.11p specification, which uses a simplified version of CSMA/CA as MAC protocol, and an STDMA MAC recently proposed by European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The paper further carried out a feasibility analysis of radio spectrum requirement for timely and reliable vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. In the feasibility analysis, synchronized STDMA MAC is compared with the CSMA/CA MAC protocol, which 802.11p is based on. Message Reception Failure (MRF) probability is used as a performance metric to investigate and ascertain the minimum spectrum requirement for efficient, timely, and reliable V2V communication. Simulation results show that even at the same allocation of 10MHz channel bandwidth, STDMA MAC outperforms the CSMA/CA based MACs due to the fact that STDMA based MACs provide a structured shared medium access and prevent negative impact of unhealthy contention for shared channel access. The results further show that up to 40MHz channel bandwidth over 5.9GHz band would be required to guarantee optimal reliability of safety packets exchange in vehicular networks as opposed to 10MHz allocated in US.
    • Raising of the participation age in the UK: the dichotomy between full participation and institutional accountability

      Lambert, Steve; Maylor, Uvanney; Coughlin, Annika (Inderscience, 2015-06-17)
      At a time of mass youth unemployment in the UK, the introduction of the Raising of the Participation Age (RPA) policy advocates the benefits of a prolonged period of education for all young people. As part of the policy, accountability was placed on schools for its implementation, with government imposed destination measures being used as an indicator of the policy's success. This paper argues that RPA will have little impact on young people who are Not in Education, Employment and/or Training (NEET) and that the accountability for the policy's implementation is at best problematic and at worse fundamentally flawed.
    • Randomised controlled feasibility study of the MyHealthAvatar-Diabetes smartphone app for reducing prolonged sitting time in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Mugridge, Lucie; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Xu; Chater, Angel M.; Brunel University; University of Bedfordshire; University of Strathclyde (MDPI, 2020-06-19)
      This study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a self-regulation smartphone app for reducing prolonged sitting in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This was a two-arm, randomised, controlled feasibility trial. The intervention group used the MyHealthAvatar-Diabetes smartphone app for 8 weeks. The app uses a number of behaviour change techniques aimed at reducing and breaking up sitting time. Eligibility, recruitment, retention, and completion rates for the outcomes (sitting, standing, stepping, and health-related measures) assessed trial feasibility. Interviews with participants explored intervention acceptability. Participants with T2DM were randomised to the control (n = 10) and intervention groups (n = 10). Recruitment and retention rates were 71% and 90%, respectively. The remaining participants provided 100% of data for the study measures. The MyHealthAvatar-Diabetes app was viewed as acceptable for reducing and breaking up sitting time. There were preliminary improvements in the number of breaks in sitting per day, body fat %, glucose tolerance, attitude, intention, planning, wellbeing, and positive and negative affect in favour of the intervention group. In conclusion, the findings indicate that it would be feasible to deliver and evaluate the efficacy of the MyHealthAvatar-Diabetes app for breaking up sitting time and improving health outcomes in a full trial.
    • A randomised controlled trial of a computerised intervention for children with social communication difficulties to support peer collaboration

      Murphy, Suzanne; Faulkner, Dorothy; Reynolds, Laura; University of Bedfordshire; Open University; Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2014-08-05)
      An intervention aiming to support children with social communication difficulties was tested using a randomised controlled design.Children aged 5–6 years old (n = 32) were tested and selected for participation on the basis of their scores on the Test of Pragmatic Skills (TPS) and were then randomly assigned to the intervention arm or to the delayed intervention control group. Following previous research which suggested that computer technology may be particularly useful for this group of children, the intervention included a collaborative computer game which the children played with an adult.Subsequently, children’s performance as they played the game with a classmate was observed. Micro-analytic observational methods were used to analyse the audio-recorded interaction of the children as they played. Pre- and post intervention measures comprised the Test of Pragmatic Skills, children’s performance on the computer game and verbal communication measures that the children used during the game. This evaluation of the intervention shows promise. At post-test,the children who had received the intervention, by comparison to the control group who had not,showed significant gains in their scores on the Test of Pragmatic Skills (p = .009,effect size r = .42), a significant improvement in their performance on the computer game (p = .03, r = .32) and significantly greater use of high-quality questioning during collaboration (p < .001, r = .60).Furthermore,the children who received the intervention made significantly more positive statements about the game and about their partners (p = .02, r = .34) suggesting that the intervention increased their confidence and enjoyment.
    • A randomised controlled trial of energetic activity for depression in young people (READY): a multi-site feasibility trial protocol

      Howlett, Neil; Bottoms, Lindsay; Chater, Angel M.; Clark, A.B.; Clarke, T.; David, L.; Irvine, K.; Jones, A.; Jones, J.; Mengoni, S.E.; et al. (BioMed Central Ltd, 2021-01-04)
      Background: Prevalence of depression is increasing in young people, and there is a need to develop and evaluate behavioural interventions which may provide benefits equal to or greater than talking therapies or pharmacological alternatives. Exercise could be beneficial for young people living with depression, but robust, large-scale trials of effectiveness and the impact of exercise intensity are lacking. This study aims to test whether a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of an intervention targeting young people living with depression is feasible by determining whether it is possible to recruit and retain young people, develop and deliver the intervention as planned, and evaluate training and delivery. Methods: The design is a three-arm cluster randomised controlled feasibility trial with embedded process evaluation. Participants will be help-seeking young people, aged 13–17 years experiencing mild to moderate low mood or depression, referred from three counties in England. The intervention will be delivered by registered exercise professionals, supported by mental health support workers, twice a week for 12 weeks. The three arms will be high-intensity exercise, low-intensity exercise, and a social activity control. All arms will receive a ‘healthy living’ behaviour change session prior to each exercise session and the two exercise groups are energy matched. The outcomes are referral, recruitment, and retention rates; attendance at exercise sessions; adherence to and ability to reach intensity during exercise sessions; proportions of missing data; adverse events, all measured at baseline, 3, and 6 months; resource use; and reach and representativeness. Discussion: UK National Health Service (NHS) policy is to provide young people with advice about using exercise to help depression but there is no evidence-based exercise intervention to either complement or as an alternative to medication or talking therapies. UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines suggest that exercise can be an effective treatment, but the evidence base is relatively weak. This feasibility trial will provide evidence about whether it is feasible to recruit and retain young people to a full RCT to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an exercise intervention for depression. Trial registration: ISRCTN, ISRCTN66452702. Registered 9 April 2020.
    • A randomised-controlled feasibility study of the REgulate your SItting Time (RESIT) intervention for reducing sitting time in individuals with type 2 diabetes: study protocol

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Edwardson, Charlotte L.; Pappas, Yannis; Dong, Feng; Hewson, David; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Brierley, Marsha L.; Chater, Angel M. (BMC, 2021-03-19)
      People with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) generally spend a large amount of time sitting. This increases their risk of cardiovascular disease, premature mortality, diabetes-related complications and mental health problems. There is a paucity of research that has evaluated interventions aimed at reducing and breaking up sitting in people with T2DM. The primary aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of delivering and evaluating a tailored intervention to reduce and break up sitting in ambulatory adults with T2DM.
    • A randomized controlled trial of training in Motivational Interviewing for child protection.

      Forrester, Donald; Westlake, David; Killian, Mike; Antonopoulou, Vivi; McCann, Michelle; Thomas, Roma; Waits, Charlotte; Whittaker, Charlotte E.; Hutchison, Dougal; Thurnham, Angela; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-02-12)
      There has been interest in developing more evidence-based approaches to child and family social work in the UK in recent years. This study examines the impact of a skills development package of training and supervision in Motivational Interviewing (MI) on the skills of social workers and the engagement of parents through a randomized controlled trial. All workers in one local authority were randomly assigned to receive the package (n = 28) or control (n = 33). Families were then randomized to trained (n = 67) or untrained (n = 98) workers. Family meetings with the worker shortly after allocation were evaluated for MI skill. Research interviews gathered data including the WAI. Follow-up interviews 20 weeks later repeated the WAI, and other outcome measures including Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) and rating of family life. Between group analysis found statistically significant difference in MI skills, though these were not substantial (2.49 in control, 2.91 MI trained, p = .049). There was no statistically significant difference between groups in any other outcome measures. The package of training and supervision did not create sufficient increase in MI skills to influence engagement or outcomes. Implications for understanding the relationship between skills, engagement and organizational change are discussed.
    • A rapid systematic review of public responses to health messages encouraging vaccination against infectious diseases in a pandemic or epidemic

      Lawes-Wickwar, Sadie; Ghio, Daniela; Tang, Mei Yee; Keyworth, Chris; Stanescu, Sabina; Westbrook, Juliette; Jenkinson, Elizabeth; Kassianos, Angelos P.; Scanlan, Daniel; Garnett, Natalie; et al. (MDPI, 2021-01-20)
      Public health teams need to understand how the public responds to vaccination messages in a pandemic or epidemic to inform successful campaigns encouraging the uptake of new vaccines as they become available. A rapid systematic review was performed by searching PsycINFO, MEDLINE, healthevidence.org, OSF Preprints and PsyArXiv Preprints in May 2020 for studies including at least one health message promoting vaccine uptake of airborne-, droplet- and fomite-spread viruses. Included studies were assessed for quality using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) or the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), and for patient and public involvement (PPI) in the research. Thirty-five articles were included. Most reported messages for seasonal influenza (n = 11; 31%) or H1N1 (n = 11; 31%). Evidence from moderate to high quality studies for improving vaccine uptake included providing information about virus risks and vaccination safety, as well as addressing vaccine misunderstandings, offering vaccination reminders, including vaccination clinic details, and delivering mixed media campaigns across hospitals or communities. Behavioural influences (beliefs and intentions) were improved when: shorter, risk-reducing or relative risk framing messages were used; the benefits of vaccination to society were emphasised; and beliefs about capability and concerns among target populations (e.g., vaccine safety) were addressed. Clear, credible, messages in a language target groups can understand were associated with higher acceptability. Two studies (6%) described PPI in the research process. Future campaigns should consider the beliefs and information needs of target populations in their design, including ensuring that vaccine eligibility and availability is clear, and messages are accessible. More high quality research is needed to demonstrate the effects of messaging interventions on actual vaccine uptake.
    • Rating scale development: a multistage exploratory sequential design

      Galaczi, Evelina D.; Khabbazbashi, Nahal; Cambridge English Language Assessment (Cambridge University Press, 2016-03-01)
      The project chosen to showcase the application of the exploratory sequential design in second/ foreign (L2) language assessment comes from the context of rating scale development and focuses on the development of a set of scales for a suite of high-stakes L2 speaking tests. The assessment of speaking requires assigning scores to a speech sample in a systematic fashion by focusing on explicitly defined criteria which describe different levels of performance (Ginther 2013). Rating scales are the instruments used in this evaluation process, and they can be either holistic (i.e. providing a global overall assessment) or analytic (i.e. providing an independent evaluations for a number of assessment criteria, e.g. Grammar, Vocabulary, Organisation, etc.). The discussion in this chapter is framed within the context of rating scales in speaking assessment. However, it is worth noting that the principles espoused, stages employed and decisions taken during the development process have wider applicability to performance assessment in general.
    • Re-imagining social care services in co-production with disabled parents

      Munro, Emily; Zonouzi, Maryam; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2018-01-01)
      Researchers from the Tilda Goldberg Centre for Social Work and Social Care at the University of Bedfordshire engaged with disabled parents involved with Ginger Giraffe (a cooperative that brings together disabled people and those experiencing multiple disadvantage together with health and social care students on placement) to define the priorities for the research (‘what do we want to explore?’).  The central aims of the research were to: explore these six disabled parents’ experiences of statutory assessments in children’s social care services and subsequent service provision, including examination of: the assessment pathway (how they accessed support) ; the assessment itself (thresholds and eligibility criteria) ; the principles guiding the assessment, and how these were experienced by disabled parents ; draw on disabled parents’, child and family social workers’ and researchers’ knowledge and expertise to re-imagine how children’s and adult social care might deliver holistic services which value the needs, assets and rights of the whole family.
    • Reaching out – a consultant palliative medicine clinic within a Luton mosque

      Herodotu, Nicholas; Ali, Nasreen (Hayward, 2012-05-01)
      The provision of cancer and palliative care services is an increasingly important part of delivering services to ethnic minority groups, as rates of cancer morbidity and mortality begin to parallel those of the majority population.
    • Reading in a second language: process, product and practice

      Urquhart, A.H.; Weir, Cyril J. (Routledge, 2014-01-01)
      Reading in a Second Language sets the testing and teaching of reading against a theoretical background, discussing research from both applied linguistics and cognitive psychology. Where possible, it focuses on research into second language readers and distinguishes different kinds of reading, particularly expeditious as opposed to careful reading, and emphasizes the validity of each.Sandy Urquhart and Cyril Weir relate testing and teaching, discussing similarities and differences, providing a comprehensive survey of both methods with the emphasis on those which have been substantiated or supported by research evidence. Finally, the book proposes specific research topics, and detailed advice on how to construct tests of language for academic purposes and suggestions for further research.
    • Real-time four-dimensional trajectory generation based on gain-scheduling control and a high-fidelity aircraft model

      Obajemu, Olusayo; Mahfouf, Mahdi; Maiyar, Lohithaksha M.; Al-Hindi, Abrar; Weiszer, Michal; Chen, Jun; University of Sheffield; University of Bedfordshire; Queen Mary University of London (Elsevier Ltd, 2021-03-19)
      Aircraft ground movement plays a key role in improving airport efficiency, as it acts as a link to all other ground operations. Finding novel approaches to coordinate the movements of a fleet of aircraft at an airport in order to improve system resilience to disruptions with increasing autonomy is at the center of many key studies for airport airside operations. Moreover, autonomous taxiing is envisioned as a key component in future digitalized airports. However, state-of-the-art routing and scheduling algorithms for airport ground movements do not consider high-fidelity aircraft models at both the proactive and reactive planning phases. The majority of such algorithms do not actively seek to optimize fuel efficiency and reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions. This paper proposes a new approach for generating efficient four-dimensional trajectories (4DTs) on the basis of a high-fidelity aircraft model and gain-scheduling control strategy. Working in conjunction with a routing and scheduling algorithm that determines the taxi route, waypoints, and time deadlines, the proposed approach generates fuel-efficient 4DTs in real time, while respecting operational constraints. The proposed approach can be used in two contexts: ① as a reactive decision support tool to generate new trajectories that can resolve unprecedented events; and ② as an autopilot system for both partial and fully autonomous taxiing. The proposed methodology is realistic and simple to implement. Moreover, simulation studies show that the proposed approach is capable of providing an up to 11% reduction in the fuel consumed during the taxiing of a large Boeing 747-100 jumbo jet.
    • A real-time monthly DR price system for the smart energy grid

      Mahmud, ASM Ashraf; Sant, Paul; Tariq, Faisal; Jazani, David; University of Bedfordshire; Queen Mary University of London (European Alliance for Innovation, 2017-08-03)
      The smart grid is the next generation bidirectional modern grid. Energy users' are keen on reducing their bill and energy suppliers are also keen on reducing their industrial cost. Our demand response model would benefit them both. We have tested our model with the UK based traditional price value using a real-time basis. Energy users significantly reduced their bill and energy suppliers reduced their industrial cost due to load shifting. The Price Control Unit (PCU) and Price Suggestions Unit (PSU) utilise and embedded algorithms to vary price based upon demand. Our model makes suggestions based on energy threshold and makes use of stochastic approximation methods to produce prices. Our results shows that bill and peak load reductions benefit both the energy provider and users. This model also addresses users' preferences, if users are non-responsive, they can still reduce their bills.
    • Real-time price savings through price suggestions for the smart grid demand response model

      Mahmud, ASM Ashraf; Sant, Paul; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-06-15)
      The smart grid is the solution for the outdated current state of the power grid. An Energy Provider (EP) and Energy User (EU) are both looking to achieve savings. A Real-Time (RT) Demand Response (DR) pricing mechanism can reduce an EUs' bill and at the same time reduce the overall peak demand and Peak to Average Ratio (PAR) so that EP save their cost. In this paper, we will provide a model that uses a Price Suggestion Unit (pSU) and Price Control Unit (PCU) that provides Real-Time Price suggestions in the SG; we tested the model with a simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) algorithm considering the threshold energy consumption with real data by using a stochastic iterative process. The EU has a choice to respond to the price suggestion. However, if they are non-responsive still they can still save on their bill in terms of taking advantage of the overall responses of other EUs.
    • Real-time refocusing using an FPGA-based standard plenoptic camera

      Hahne, Christopher; Lumsdaine, Andrew; Aggoun, Amar; Velisavljević, Vladan; University of Bedfordshire; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (IEEE, 2018-03-22)
      Plenoptic cameras are receiving increased attention in scientific and commercial applications because they capture the entire structure of light in a scene, enabling optical transforms (such as focusing) to be applied computationally after the fact, rather than once and for all at the time a picture is taken. In many settings, real-time inter active performance is also desired, which in turn requires significant computational power due to the large amount of data required to represent a plenoptic image. Although GPUs have been shown to provide acceptable performance for real-time plenoptic rendering, their cost and power requirements make them prohibitive for embedded uses (such as in-camera). On the other hand, the computation to accomplish plenoptic rendering is well structured, suggesting the use of specialized hardware. Accordingly, this paper presents an array of switch-driven finite impulse response filters, implemented with FPGA to accomplish high-throughput spatial-domain rendering. The proposed architecture provides a power-efficient rendering hardware design suitable for full-video applications as required in broadcasting or cinematography. A benchmark assessment of the proposed hardware implementation shows that real-time performance can readily be achieved, with a one order of magnitude performance improvement over a GPU implementation and three orders ofmagnitude performance improvement over a general-purpose CPU implementation.