• Safe foster care for victims of child sexual exploitation

      Shuker, Lucie; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2015-12-01)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on an evaluation of a pilot of specialist foster care for children at risk, or victims, of child sexual exploitation (CSE) and/or trafficking. Design/methodology/approach – The research adopted a multi-case study approach, gathering placement documentation, interviews and weekly monitoring logs throughout the duration of the 13 placements. Findings – This evaluation found that safety for those at risk, or victims, of CSE within the in-care population has both a physical and a relational element. The most successful placements were able to deploy restrictive safety measures effectively by tipping the balance of care and control towards demonstrations of compassion and acceptance. Good relationships in these foster homes unlocked other positive outcomes, including reduced missing incidences and increased awareness of exploitation. Research limitations/implications – The small sample size within this pilot project suggests the need for further research to test the applicability of the notion of multi-dimensional safety to young people’s welfare more generally. Practical implications – The findings confirm previous research that highlights the importance of stable relationships in child protection. They have implications for current tendencies to commission short-term CSE interventions that are unlikely to create the relational security that can improve community safety for young people. Originality/value – This is the first published evaluation of specialist accommodation for those affected by CSE in the UK, and its findings will therefore be of most value to commissioners and providers of care to looked after young people. The concept of multi-dimensional safety will be relevant to those with responsibility for child welfare/safeguarding.
    • Safe inside? child sexual abuse in the youth secure estate

      Soares, Claire; George, Rachel; Pope, Laura; Brähler, Verena; IICSA Research Team (Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse, 2019-02-28)
      The Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse (‘the Inquiry’) aims to consider the extent to which state and non-state institutions in England and Wales have failed in their duty of care to protect children from sexual abuse and exploitation, and to make meaningful recommendations for change. This research explores perceptions and experiences of safeguarding in the youth secure estate in England and Wales, specifically in relation to child sexual abuse. It complements the Inquiry’s investigation into the extent of any institutional failures to protect children from sexual abuse while in custodial institutions. The research provides contemporary insight from staff and children across different establishments in the youth secure estate. The study sought to find out the extent to which children feel safe from sexual abuse in the youth secure estate, and the role of staff, systems and processes within this
    • Safeguarding adolescents: a survey of London professionals

      Shuker, Lucie; Contextual Safeguarding Network (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2017-11-16)
      This report presents the findings of a survey of 120 London-based professionals from a range of agencies, on their views and experiences of safeguarding adolescents in the capital. It was undertaken as part of a programme of work for the London Safeguarding Adolescents Steering Group (LSASG) and will inform the development of a new chapter on safeguarding adolescents in the London Child Protection Procedures.
    • Safeguarding adult reviews: informing and enriching policy and practice on self-neglect

      Preston-Shoot, Michael; (Emerald, 2020-04-25)
      Purpose – One purpose is to update the core dataset of self-neglect safeguarding adult reviews and accompanying thematic analysis. A second purpose is to explore the degree to which safeguarding adult reviews draw upon available research and learning from other completed reviews. Design/methodology/approach – Further published reviews are added to the core dataset, mainly drawn from the web sites of Safeguarding Adults Boards. Thematic analysis is updated using the four domains employed previously. The four domains and the thematic analysis are rounded in the evidence-based model of good practice, reported in this journal previously. Multiple exclusion homelessness and alcohol misuse are prominent in this sample of reviews. Findings – Familiar findings emerge from the thematic analysis and reinforce the evidence-base of good practice with individuals who self-neglect and for policies and procedures with which to support those practitioners working with such cases. Multiple exclusion homelessness emerges as a subset within this sample, demonstrating that SABs are engaging in reviews of people who die on the streets or in temporary accommodation.   Research limitations/implications – The national database of reviews commissioned by SABs remains incomplete and does not contain many of the safeguarding adult reviews reported in this evolving dataset. The Care Act 2014 does not require publication of reports but only a summary of findings and recommendations in SAB annual reports. NHS Digital annual datasets do not enable identification of reviews by types of abuse and neglect. It is possible, therefore, that this dataset is also incomplete. Drawing together the findings from the reviews nonetheless builds on what is known about the components of effective practice, and effective policy and organisational arrangements for practice. Practical implications – Answering the question “why” remains a significant challenge for safeguarding adult reviews. The findings confirm the relevance of the evidence-base for effective practice but SARs are limited in their analysis of what enables and what obstructs the components of best practice. Greater explicit use of research and other published SARs might assist with answering the “why” question, drawing attention where appropriate to policies being pursued by central government that undermine any initiative to end rough sleeping. Originality/value – The paper extends the thematic analysis of available reviews that focus on work with adults who self-neglect, further reinforcing the evidence base for practice. The evidence-base also supports practice with individuals who experience multiple exclusion homelessness. Policy-makers and practitioners have an approach to follow in this complex, challenging and demanding area of practice.   Keywords: Safeguarding adult reviews, evidence, self-neglect, research, multiple exclusion homelessness, alcohol misuse
    • Safeguarding adults and COVID-19: a sector-led improvement response

      Cooper, Adi; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald Group Holdings Ltd., 2020-10-21)
      Purpose: This study aims to describe the sector-led response to the COVID-19 pandemic and national lockdown in terms of safeguarding adults. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses a case study method to examine a sector-led improvement response to COVID-19 and safeguarding adults. Findings: The study describes how safeguarding issues and concerns were identified and brought together, and then responded to. It reviews this initiative in the context of crisis intervention theory and discusses the achievements of this initiative regarding COVID-19 and safeguarding adults during the period April–July 2020. Originality/value: The study describes a unique joint initiative between the Local Government Association and the Association of Directors of Adult Social Services, which worked with the Networks of Chairs of Safeguarding Adults Boards, Safeguarding Adults Boards’ managers and Principal Social Workers. This initiative developed resources and shared information and good practice to support a response in unprecedented circumstances.
    • Safeguarding and exploitation - complex, contextual and holistic approaches: strategic briefing

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Wroe, Lauren; Lloyd, Jenny; University of Bedfordshire (Research in Practice, 2019-05-22)
      This briefing can be used to inform the development of holistic, complex and contextual safeguarding systems that are equipped to address and prevent exploitation in all its forms. The briefing: * Provides an integrated account of the different forms of exploitation experienced by children and young people (including young adults) in relation to how they are defined, experienced and addressed. * Documents the strategic challenges posed by national policy frameworks (or lack thereof) associated to exploitation – as well as the legacy of siloed local structures or ineffective pathways for safeguarding adolescents. * Provides a set of considerations for designing an effective response to exploitation with reference to practice examples. * Identifies factors that enable a workforce to adopt an integrated approach to exploitation.
    • Safeguarding children and young people from sexual exploitation, gang-association and associated vulnerabilities: a briefing for Inspectorates

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Contextual Safeguarding Network; University of Bedfordshire (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2018-02-16)
      This briefing has been designed to inform the development of the Joint Targeted Area Inspections into child sexual exploitation by Ofsted, HMIC, HMIP and the CQC. It has been updated from an original briefing published on CSE for inspection in 2016, to include contemporary key messages from The International Centre: Researching child sexual exploitation, trafficking and violence’ (IC) at the University of Bedfordshire, and provide more detailed comment on gang-association and criminal exploitation. Although this briefing has a particular focus on inspecting responses to child sexual exploitation (CSE), gang-association and other forms of child sexual abuse (CSA), it also considers associated vulnerabilities - such as being missing from home or education – which are important for safeguarding in adolescence more broadly.
    • Safeguarding children under Covid -19: what are we learning?

      Pearce, Jenny J.; Miller, Chris; University of Bedfordshire; Harrow Safeguarding Partnership (Emerald, 2020-11-30)
      This ‘view point’ identifies learning from a series of webinars held by the Association of Safeguarding Partners (www.theASP.org.uk). These webinars have been sharing information about both the challenges and opportunities presented in safeguarding children during the Covid-19 pandemic. They are advertised as open access and have been attended by UK safeguarding leads, including scrutineers of local safeguarding children partnerships (LSCPs), practitioners representing local authorities, police, health, and the Department for Education. Findings from the webinars note concerns about continuing and undetected abuse of children within and outside of the home; about the changing nature of criminal exploitation; and about the strains created by social distancing on children in families experiencing problems with poor mental health, drug and alcohol misuse and domestic abuse. Despite this, there have been some important and helpful lessons learnt, including the discovery of innovative ways of working, the rapid collation of data across partnerships and about different methods of engaging with children, young people, and their families. This ‘think piece’ gives a brief summary of these findings with suggestions about their possible impact on the future safeguarding of children.
    • Safeguarding during adolescence: the relationship between contextual safeguarding, complex safeguarding and transitional safeguarding

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Horan, Jayne; Holmes, Dez; Hopper, Gail; Contextual Safeguarding Network (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2016-01-09)
      Briefing on the relationship between Contextual Safeguarding, Complex Safeguarding and Transitional Safeguarding
    • Safety knowledge sharing on Twitter: a social network analysis

      Yao, Qi; Li, Rita Yi Man; Song, Lingxi; Crabbe, M. James C.; Chongqing Technology and Business University; Hong Kong Shue Yan University; Rajamangala University of Technology Tawan-Ok; Oxford University; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2021-07-28)
      Many studies show that unsafe behavior is the main cause of construction accidents. Safety education and training are effective means to minimise people’s unsafe behaviors. Apart from traditional face-to-face construction knowledge sharing, social media is a good tool because it is convenient, efficient, and widely used. We applied both social network analysis and sentiment analysis to investigate knowledge sharing on Twitter. Our study is a novel attempt to understand social structure of “construction safety”- related twitter networks and the opinion leaders. We selected and analyzed 6561 tweets of three users’ networks on Twitter – “construction safety”, “construction health” and “construction accident”. We found that three networks had low density and many isolated vertices, which showed that users did not actively interact with each other. The opinion leaders in this study were mostly organizations or government agencies. The top one is “cif_ireland”, the Irish construction industry’s representative body, the Construction Industry Federation. 3200 Tweets of the top opinion leader were analyzed through graph metrics calculation, cluster analysis, sentiment analysis, and correlation analysis. The opinion leader used Twitter as a medium to disseminate the latest safety news. Thus, we may use Twitter to stimulate people’s interest on construction safety topics, share construction safety knowledge, opinions and ideas. Besides, our results showed that sentiment valence had no correlation with number of favorites or retweets. Nevertheless, there was a positive correlation between favorites and retweets.
    • Sage international encyclopedia of mass media & society

      Silverman, Jon (Sage Publications Inc., 2019-12-13)
      The SAGE International Encyclopedia of Mass Media and Society discusses media around the world in their varied forms—newspapers, magazines, radio, television, film, books, music, websites, social media, mobile media—and describes the role of each in both mirroring and shaping society. This encyclopedia provides a thorough overview of media within social and cultural contexts, exploring the development of the mediated communication industry, mediated communication regulations, and societal interactions and effects. This reference work will look at issues such as free expression and government regulation of media; how people choose what media to watch, listen to, and read; and how the influence of those who control media organizations may be changing as new media empower previously unheard voices. The role of media in society will be explored from international, multidisciplinary perspectives via approximately 700 articles drawing on research from communication and media studies, sociology, anthropology, social psychology, politics, and business.
    • Salicylic acid collaborates with gene silencing to tomato defense against tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)

      Li, Yunzhou; Muhammad, Tayab; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Dalong; Crabbe, M. James C.; Liang, Yan; Northwest A&F University; Guizhou University; Shangdong Agricultural University; University of Oxford; et al. (Pakistan Botanical Society, 2018-07-10)
      Antiviral research in plants has been focused on RNA silencing (i.e. RNA interference), and several studies suggest that salicylic acid (SA)-mediated resistance is a key part of plant antiviral defense. However, the antiviral defense mechanism of SA-mediation is still unclear, and several recent studies have suggested a connection between SA-mediated defense and RNA silencing, which needs further characterization in TYLCV infection. In this study, both SA-mediated defense and the RNA silencing mechanism were observed to play an important role in the antiviral response against TYLCV. First, we found that SA application enhanced the resistance to TYLCV in tomato plants. The expression of RNA-silencing-related genes, such as SlDCL1, SlDCL2, SlDCL4, SlRDR2, SlRDR3a, SlRDR6a, SlAGO1, and SlAGO4, were significantly triggered by exogenous SA application and inoculation with TYLCV, respectively. Furthermore, silencing of SlDCL2, SlDCL4 in tomato resulted in attenuated resistance to TYLCV, and reduced the expression of defense-related genes (SlPR1 and SlPR1b) in SA-mediated defense after infection with TYLCV, particularly in SlDCL2/SlDCL4-silenced plants. Taken together, we conclude that SA collaborates with gene silencing in tomato defense against TYLCV.
    • Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to high intensity cycling before and after an 11-day intensified training period

      Hough, John; Corney, Robert; Kouris, Antonios; Gleeson, Michael; Loughborough University (Routledge, 2013-05-28)
      This study examined salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to two, different high-intensity, ~30-min cycles separated by 2 h rest before and after an 11-day intensified training period. Twelve recreationally active, healthy males completed the study. Saliva samples were collected before, immediately after and 30 min after both bouts with salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations assessed. Compared with pre-training blunted exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone responses to both bouts post-training were observed (P < 0.05 for all). Comparing pre- with posttraining the absolute exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone decreased from 11.1 to 3.1 and 7.0 to 4.4 nmol · L−1 (cortisol), from 407 to 258 and from 473 to 274 pmol · L−1 (testosterone) and from 12 to 4 and 7 to 5 (cortisol/testosterone) for the first and second bouts, respectively (P < 0.05). No differences in the pre- and post-training rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) responses during the cycles or times to fatigue were found (P > 0.05). Fatigue and Burnout scores were higher post- compared with pre-training (P < 0.05). These high-intensity exercise bouts can detect altered hormonal responses following intensified training. This test could assess an athlete’s current hormonal status, reductions in salivary cortisol and testosterone responses suggestive of increased fatigue.
    • Satellite DNA in Paphiopedilum subgenus Parvisepalum as revealed by high-throughput sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization

      Lee, Yung-I; Yap, Jing Wei; Izan, Shairul; Leitch, Ilia J.; Fay, Michael F.; Lee, Yi-Ching; Hidalgo, Oriane; Dodsworth, Steven; Smulders, Marinus J.M.; Gravendeel, Barbara; et al. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2017-11-24)
      Background: Satellite DNA is a rapidly diverging, largely repetitive DNA component of many eukaryotic genomes. Here we analyse the evolutionary dynamics of a satellite DNA repeat in the genomes of a group of Asian subtropical lady slipper orchids (Paphiopedilum subgenus Parvisepalum and representative species in the other subgenera/sections across the genus). A new satellite repeat in Paphiopedilum subgenus Parvisepalum, SatA, was identified and characterized using the RepeatExplorer pipeline in HiSeq Illumina reads from P. armeniacum (2n = 26). Reconstructed monomers were used to design a satellite-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probe. The data were also analysed within a phylogenetic framework built using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 45S nuclear ribosomal DNA. Results: SatA comprises c. 14.5% of the P. armeniacum genome and is specific to subgenus Parvisepalum. It is composed of four primary monomers that range from 230 to 359 bp and contains multiple inverted repeat regions with hairpin loop motifs. A new karyotype of P. vietnamense (2n = 28) is presented and shows that the chromosome number in subgenus Parvisepalum is not conserved at 2n = 26, as previously reported. The physical locations of SatA sequences were visualised on the chromosomes of all seven Paphiopedilum species of subgenus Parvisepalum (2n = 26–28), together with the 5S and 45S rDNA loci using FISH. The SatA repeats were predominantly localisedin the centromeric, peri-centromeric and sub-telocentric chromosome regions, but the exact distribution pattern was species-specific. Conclusions: We conclude that the newly discovered, highly abundant and rapidly evolving satellite sequence SatA is specific to Paphiopedilum subgenus Parvisepalum. SatA and rDNA chromosomal distributions are characteristic of species, and comparisons between species reveal that the distribution patterns generate a strong phylogenetic signal. We also conclude that the ancestral chromosome number of subgenus Parvisepalum and indeed of all Paphiopedilum could be either 2n = 26 or 28, if P. vietnamense is sister to all species in the subgenus as suggested by the ITS data.
    • Satisfaction of using a nurse led telephone helpline among mothers and caregivers of young children

      Cook, Erica Jane; Randhawa, Gurch; Large, Shirley; Ali, Nasreen; Chater, Angel M.; Guppy, Andy (Elsevier, 2015-12-28)
      Objectives This research aimed to explore user’s experiences of using a nurse led telephone based healthcare service (NHS Direct) among mothers and caregivers of young children to uncover the core factors, which influence the level of satisfaction of using this type of service. Methods Focus groups were held with a subgroup of NHS Direct high ‘users’ (N=17), which included mothers and grandmothers of young children aged between 21 and 54 years old. Qualitative data analysis was undertaken using the thematic framework approach. Results The findings revealed a high level of satisfaction towards this service and this was based on high levels of trust and reassurance that this service provides. Findings also uncovered that users believed that the service would be improved by the utilisation of more person-centred decision-making tools. Conclusion This research demonstrates the increasing role that telephone based healthcare services can play on empowering patients to take more control of their health.
    • Scaffolding student–coaches’ instructional leadership toward student-centred peer interactions: a yearlong action-research intervention in sport education

      Farias, Cláudio; Hastie, Peter A.; Mesquita, Isabel; University of Bedfordshire; University of Auburn; University of Porto (SAGE, 2017-01-13)
      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide a year-long examination of the scaffolding processes used by a teacher in order to support student coaches in their instructional leadership responsibilities during seasons of Sport Education. The intervention sought to enable coaches to conduct problem-solving activities and instructional interactions that would actively involve teammates in the discovery of knowledge and construction of their own learning experiences. Method: Twenty-six seventh grade students participated in four consecutive seasons of Sport Education (Basketball, Handball, Soccer, and Volleyball). The research involved four action-research iterative cycles of planning, acting, monitoring, and fact-finding. Data collection included semi-structured interviews with teams as well as exclusively with the coaches, lesson observations, and a field diary kept by the first author who assumed the role of practitioner-researcher. Results: The findings showed it was necessary to explicitly teach the coaches specific instructional strategies for constructivist peer interactions to emerge. However as coaches became increasingly self-assisted, they were able to promote activities more relevant to the learning needs of teammates. Further, the involvement of the students in taking responsibility for peer-teaching emerged late in the school year. The scaffolding process was found to be a non-linear process contingently adjusted in reference to aspects such as coaches’ mastery of processes, the complexity of the domain-specific content, and nature of the sport. Conclusions: This study gives credence to the advocacy that specific training is necessary if students are to develop the ability to engage teammates actively in learning interactions. 
    • A scalable and license free 5G Internet of radio light architecture for services in homes businesses

      Cosmas, John; Meunier, Ben; Ali, Kareem; Jawad, Nawar; Salih, Mukhald; Meng, Hong-Ying; Ganley, Martin; Gbadamosi, James; Savov, Atanas; Hadad, Zion; et al. (IEEE Computer Society, 2018-08-16)
      In this paper we present a 5G Internet Radio-Light (IoRL) architecture for homes that can be readily deployed because it utilizes unlicensed visible light and millimeter wave part of the spectrum, which does not require Mobile Network Operator (MNO) permission to deploy and which is used to provide inhabitants of houses with accurate location, interaction, access to Internet and Cloud based services such as high resolution video on a Tablet PC. The paper describes the home use cases and the IoRL architecture.
    • Scalable DB+IR technology: processing Probabilistic Datalog with HySpirit

      Frommholz, Ingo; Roelleke, Thomas; University of Bedfordshire; Queen Mary, University of London (Springer Verlag, 2016-01-26)
      Probabilistic Datalog (PDatalog, proposed in 1995) is a probabilistic variant of Datalog and a nice conceptual idea to model Information Retrieval in a logical, rule-based programming paradigm. Making PDatalog work in real-world applications requires more than probabilistic facts and rules, and the semantics associated with the evaluation of the programs. We report in this paper some of the key features of the HySpirit system required to scale the execution of PDatalog programs. Firstly, there is the requirement to express probability estimation in PDatalog. Secondly, fuzzy-like predicates are required to model vague predicates (e.g. vague match of attributes such as age or price). Thirdly, to handle large data sets there are scalability issues to be addressed, and therefore, HySpirit provides probabilistic relational indexes and parallel and distributed processing. The main contribution of this paper is a consolidated view on the methods of the HySpirit system to make PDatalog applicable in real-scale applications that involve a wide range of requirements typical for data (information) management and analysis.
    • Scaling and deepening Reclaiming Social Work model

      Bostock, Lisa; Forrester, Donald; Patrizo, Louis; Godfrey, Tessa; Zonouzi, Maryam; Bird, Hayden; Antonopoulou, Vivi; Tinarwo, Moreblessing; University of Bedfordshire; University of Cardiff (Department for Education, 2017-07-06)
      This report evaluates the Scaling and Deepening the Reclaiming Social Work Model which aimed to embed ‘Reclaiming Social Work’ in 5 very different local authorities (Buckinghamshire, Derbyshire, Harrow, Hull and Southwark). Reclaiming Social Work (RSW) is a whole-system reform that aims to deliver systemic practice in children’s services. Key elements include in-depth training, small units with shared cases and group systemic case discussions, clinician support, reduced bureaucracy, devolved decision-making and enhanced administrative support. The overall aims include improving risk assessment and decision-making, providing more effective help and risk management for children and families. Keeping families together, where appropriate, is a fundamental aim of RSW.