• T-cell reconstitution after thymus xenotransplantation induces hair depigmentation and loss

      Furmanski, Anna L.; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan F.L.; Saldana, Jose Ignacio; Blundell, Michael P.; Thrasher, Adrian J.; Sebire, Neil; Davies, E Graham; Crompton, Tessa (Elsevier, 2013-01-10)
      Here we present a mouse model for T-cell targeting of hair follicles, linking the pathogenesis of alopecia to that of depigmentation disorders. Clinically, thymus transplantation has been successfully used to treat T-cell immunodeficiency in congenital athymia, but is associated with autoimmunity. We established a mouse model of thymus transplantation by subcutaneously implanting human thymus tissueinto athymic C57BL/6 nude mice. These xenografts supported mouse T-cell development. Surprisingly, we did not detect multiorgan autoimmune disease. However, in all transplanted mice, we noted a striking depigmentation and loss of hair follicles. Transfer of T cells from transplanted nudes to syngeneic black-coated RAG−/- recipients caused progressive, persistent coat-hair whitening, which preceded patchy hair loss in depigmented areas. Further transfer experiments revealed that these phenomena could be induced by CD4+ T cells alone. Immunofluorescent analysis suggested that Trp2+ melanocyte-lineage cells were decreased in depigmented hair follicles, and pathogenic T cells upregulated activation markers when exposed to C57BL/6 melanocytes in vitro, suggesting that these T cells are not tolerant to self-melanocyte antigens. Our data raise interesting questions about the mechanisms underlying tissue-specific tolerance to skin antigens.
    • Tackling anxiety in primary mathematics teachers

      Wicks, Karen; University of Bedfordshire (Critical Publishing, 2021-02-15)
      This book provides teacher educators with an understanding of the issues around mathematics anxiety and a framework of teaching strategies to support undergraduates, trainee teachers and established professionals in primary settings in developing confidence in learning and teaching mathematics.
    • Tackling child sexual exploitation: a study of current practice in London

      Beckett, Helen; Firmin, Carlene Emma; Hynes, Patricia; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2014-01-01)
      In autumn 2013, London Councils and the London Safeguarding Children Board commissioned a team of researchers from the University of Bedfordshire to map current responses to child sexual exploitation (CSE) across London. The study was conducted in October/November 2013. The findings are drawn from an in-depth quantitative survey (completed by 30 London boroughs and local safeguarding children boards) and eight semi-structured interviews with statutory and voluntary sector providers.
    • Tackling in physical education rugby: an unnecessary risk?

      White, Adam John; Batten, John; Robinson, Stefan; Anderson, Eric; Burns, Andrew; Batey, Jo; Ryan-Stewart, Helen; Discombe, Russell (BMJ, 2018-01-14)
      Since 2016, we have been strong advocates for the removal of tackling from rugby (League and Union) played in school physical education in the United Kingdom [1]. This is because (a) tackling is the leading cause of injury in rugby, (b) rugby has a level of risk that is higher than non-contact sports, (c) there is no requirement or need for tackling as part of the school physical education curriculum, and (d) many children are compelled to participate in contact rugby [2]. In response to this call, the Chief Medical Officers and the Physical Activity Expert Group commented: ‘The Committee reject the call to ban tackling, as they do not feel rugby participation poses an unacceptable risk of harm’ [3]. Yet, the notion of risk (un) acceptability is a construct that needs further discussion, which we will start here [4].
    • Take note of the fuss: selective eating and autistic spectrum disorders

      Chater, Angel M.; Stein, Samuel; Chowdhury, Uttom; University of Bedfordshire (2012-12-01)
      Selective eating in children can be a huge concern for parents. In most cases the problem is self-limiting and it can be associated with a developmental disorder. This article presents observations from two case studies from a child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) in the south east of England that link selective eating with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). It concludes with recommendations to consider ASD, alongside dietetic advice, when a child is presenting with selective eating.
    • Taking account: a social and economic audit of the third sector in Brighton and Hove

      Bramwell, P.; Hiscock, S.; Mason, P.; Colwell, J.; Church, Andrew; Wolff, D.; Dawson, R.; Golding, D. (University of Brighton, 2008-09-01)
      The 2007/8 social and economic audit of Brighton and Hove’s third sector is the second of its kind, the first being conducted in 2003. Whilst it is widely recognised that the third sector in Brighton and Hove has an important role, the evidence to substantiate social and economic impact is sparse. Taking Account produces evidence of the dynamic and diverse third sector in Brighton and Hove allowing us to: • examine the sector’s social value and impact locally • evidence the sector’s economic value and impact locally • identify the role of the sector in strengthening communities and giving a voice to local people • assess how the sector influences public services • help ensure that the sector is better understood within the context of Brighton and Hove, and evidence its parity with other sectors • help better understand the sector and ensure we are getting the most out of it. Taking Account also tells us about the context in which the sector is operating and the changes since the social and economic audit in 2003, making comparisons where possible to the earlier analysis. This information will assist third sector organisations, policy-makers and commissioning bodies to steer the sector towards a stable and sustainable future.
    • Tandem oligomeric expression of metallothionein enhance heavy metal tolerance and bioaccumulation in Escherichia coli.

      Ma, Wenli; Li, Xuefen; Wang, Qi; Ren, Zhumei; Crabbe, M. James C.; Wang, Lan; Shanxi University; University of Oxford; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2019-06-13)
      Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins, which play important roles in metal homeostasis and heavy metal detoxification. In our previous study, a novel full length MT cDNA was successfully cloned from the freshwater crab (Sinopotamon henanense). In the present study, tandem repeats of two and three copies of the crab MT gene were integrated by overlap extension PCR (SOEPCR) and expressed in Escherichia coli. The SUMO fusion expression system was adopted to increase the stability and solubility of the recombinant MT proteins. The recombinant proteins were purified and their metal-binding abilities were further analyzed by the ultraviolet absorption spectral scan. Furthermore, the metal tolerance and bioaccumulation of E. coli cells expressing oligomeric MTs were determined. Results showed that the recombinant plasmids pET28a-SUMO-2MT and pET28a-SUMO-3MT were successfully constructed. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the SUMO-2MT and SUMO-3MT were expressed mainly in the soluble forms. Oligomeric MTs expression significantly enhanced Cu, Cd or Zn tolerance and accumulation in E. coli in the order: SUMO-3MT˃SUMO-2MT˃SUMO-MT˃control. Cells harboring pET28a-SUMO -3MT exhibited the highest Cu, Cd or Zn bioaccumulation at 5.8-fold, 3.1-fold or 6.7-fold higher than that of the control cells. Our research could lay a foundation for large-scale preparation of MTs and provide a scientific basis for bioremediation of heavy metal pollution by oligomeric MTs.
    • Targeted editing of SlMAPK6 using CRISPR/Cas9 technology to promote the development of axillary buds in tomato plants

      Li, Yunzhou; Yue, Ningbo; Basit, Abdul; Li, Yulong; Zhang, Dalong; Qin, Lei; Crabbe, M. James C.; Xu, Wen; Wang, Yong; Yan, Jianmin; et al. (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2021-01-15)
      The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade signaling system has been relatively conserved throughout the evolution of eukaryotes and is involved in the regulation of growth and development and metabolism. In this study, dwarf tomato plants were used as the research material. First, the tissue-specific expression of SlMAPK6 was measured in wild-type plants by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that SlMAPK6 was highly expressed in the tissues of the stems, leaves and flowers but was expressed at low levels in the tissues of the roots, sepals and fruits. Second, SlMAPK6-knockout lines CRISPR-3 and CRISPR-7 were obtained by CRISPR-Cas9 technology and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Compared with wild-type, the mutant lines CRISPR-3 and CRISPR-7 showed significant phenotypic characteristics, such as increased numbers of axillary buds and true leaves, thickened stems, and longer leaflets. In addition, to explore the molecular mechanism by which MAPK regulates axillary bud growth, we also showed that SlMAPK6 positively regulates the strigolactone synthesis genes SlCCD7 and SlCCD8 and the gibberellin (GA) synthesis genes GA20ox3 and GA3ox1 and negatively regulates the axillary bud development-related genes Ls, BL and BRC1b/TCP8 and the GA synthesis inhibitory gene GAI. Therefore, SlMAPK6 appears to regulate the synthesis of strigolactone and GA to induce the growth and development of tomato axillary buds.
    • TCR-alpha CDR3 loop audition regulates positive selection

      Ferreira, Cristina; Furmanski, Anna L.; Millrain, Maggie M.; Bartok, Istvan; Guillaume, Philippe; Lees, Rosemary; Simpson, Elizabeth; MacDonald, H. Robson; Dyson, Julian (American Association of Immunologists, 2006-08-03)
      How positive selection molds the T cell repertoire has been difficult to examine. In this study, we use TCR-β-transgenic mice in which MHC shapes TCR-α use. Differential AV segment use is directly related to the constraints placed on the composition of the CDR3 loops. Where these constraints are low, efficient selection of αβ pairs follows. This mode of selection preferentially uses favored AV-AJ rearrangements and promotes diversity. Increased constraint on the α CDR3 loops leads to inefficient selection associated with uncommon recombination events and limited diversity. Further, the two modes of selection favor alternate sets of AJ segments. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the imprint of self-MHC restriction and peripheral T cell activation.
    • Te Kotahitanga : towards effective education reform for indigenous and other minoritised students

      Bishop, Russell; Berryman, Mere; Wearmouth, Janice (NZCER Press, 2014-06-18)
      The persistence of educational disparities that adversely affect indigenous and other minoritised students continues to be a major problem facing many nations. Principles of social justice and political imperatives at national level to address the detrimental impact of economically disengaged proportions of the population make this an issue that policy makers and educators in general should be aware of and look for ways to overcome. This book focuses on 'Te Kotahitanga', a theory-based, school-wide reform that operated in a number of mainstream secondary schools in New Zealand nand that has improved the educational experiences and achievement of Maori students. It began with the implementation of classroom pedagogy that is intended to respond to students' culture and to focus on positive teacher-student relationships. Case studies from three of the schools at Phase 3 in the project take the reader inside this reform that, in these schools, is supported by responsive and distributed leadership. 
    • Teacher education and the development of democratic education in England

      Hopkins, Neil (Routledge, 2019-12-17)
      England presents an interesting and complex situation with regards to teacher education and democratic citizenship in relation to other European contexts. These challenges can be encapsulated in the debate over national identity in the midst of Brexit. This chapter will explore how and if fundamental British values accord with the Council of Europe’s conceptual model of 20 competences for citizenship and democracy. Discussion of how and whether teacher education in England is able to encourage trainers and trainees to explore identity within the context of Brexit will also be explored. Teacher education in England has become increasingly fragmented and complex in recent years. The government’s drive towards more school-centred teacher education and the removal of state schools from local authority control has left a situation where trainees can opt for a range of ‘pathways’ into school and college teaching. The debate here is whether investigation of citizenship, democracy and identity is in danger of being further marginalised by the pressure to get trainees ‘classroom ready’. This chapter will adopt a philosophical approach to the literature, focussing on some key texts in the field to draw out implications for the main concepts and how they are interpreted.
    • Teacher training and the education of black children: bringing color into difference

      Maylor, Uvanney (Routledge, 2014-01-13)
      This book is designed to challenge dominant educational discourses on the underachievement of Black children and to engender new understandings in initial teacher education (ITE) about Black children's education and achievement. Based in empirical case study work and theoretical insights drawn from Bourdieu, hooks, Freire, and Giroux, Maylor calls for Black children’s underachievement to be (re)theorised and (re)conceptualised within teacher education, and for students and teachers to become more "race"- and "difference"-minded in their practice.
    • Teaching diversity to medical undergraduates: curriculum development, delivery and assessment. AMEE GUIDE No. 103

      Dogra, Nisha; Bhatti, Farah; Ertubey, Candan; Kelly, Moira; Rowlands, Angela; Singh, Davinder; Turner, Margot; University of Leicester; Swansea University; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2016-04-02)
      The aim of this Guide is to support teacher with the responsibility of designing, delivering and/or assessing diversity education. Although, the focus is on medical education, the guidance is relevant to all healthcare professionals. The Guide begins by providing an overview of the definitions used and the principles that underpin the teaching of diversity as advocated by Diversity and Medicine in Health (DIMAH). Following an outline of these principles we highlight the difference between equality and diversity education. The Guide then covers diversity education throughout the educational process from the philosophical stance of educators and how this influences the approaches used through to curriculum development, delivery and assessment. Appendices contain practical examples from across the UK, covering lesson plans and specific exercises to deliver teaching. Although, diversity education remains variable and fragmented there is now some momentum to ensure that the principles of good educational practice are applied to diversity education. The nature of this topic means that there are a range of different professions and medical disciplines involved which leads to a great necessity for greater collaboration and sharing of effective practice.
    • Teaching poetry: reading and responding to poetry in the secondary classroom.

      Naylor, Amanda; Wood, Audrey B. (Routledge, 2011-12-08)
      Teaching Poetry is an indispensible source of guidance, confidence and ideas for all those new to the secondary English classroom. Written by experienced teachers who have worked with the many secondary pupils who ‘don’t get’ poetry, this friendly guide will help you support pupils as they access, understand, discuss and enjoy classic and contemporary poetry.
    • Teaching rule‐based algorithmic composition: the PWGL library cluster rules

      Anders, Torsten; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2016)
      This paper presents software suitable for undergraduate students to implement computer programs that compose music. The software offers a low floor (students easily get started) but also a high ceiling (complex compositional theories can be modelled). Our students are particularly interested in tonal music: such aesthetic preferences are supported, without stylistically restricting users of the software. We use a rule‐based approach (constraint programming) to allow for great flexibility. Our software Cluster Rules implements a collection of compositional rules on rhythm, harmony, melody, and counterpoint for the new music constraint system Cluster Engine by Örjan Sandred. The software offers a low floor by observing several guidelines. The programming environment uses visual programming (Cluster Rules and Cluster Engine extend the algorithmic composition system PWGL). Further, music theory definitions follow a template, so students can learn from examples how to create their own definitions. Finally, students are offered a collection of predefined rules, which they can freely combine in their own definitions. Music Technology students, including students without any prior computer programming experience, have successfully used the software. Students used the musical results of their computer programs to create original compositions. The software is also interesting for postgraduate students, composers and researchers. Complex polyphonic constraint problems are supported (high ceiling). Users can freely define their own rules and combine them with predefined rules. Also, Cluster Engine’s efficient search algorithm makes advanced problems solvable in practice.
    • Teaching with technology in higher education: understanding conceptual change and development in practice

      Englund, Claire; Olofsson, Anders D.; Price, Linda (Routledge, 2017-11-01)
      Research indicates that teachers’ conceptions of and approaches to teaching with technology are central for the successful implementation of educational technologies in higher education. This study advances this premise. We present a 10-year longitudinal study examining teachers’ conceptions of and approaches to teaching and learning with technology. Nine teachers on an online Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy and Master of Pharmacy at a Swedish university were studied using a phenomenographic approach. Results showed clear differences between novice and experienced teachers. Although novice teachers initially held more teacher-focused conceptions, they demonstrated greater and more rapid change than experienced colleagues. Experienced teachers tended to exhibit little to no change in conceptions. Supporting conceptual change should therefore be a central component of professional development activities if a more effective use of educational technology is to be achieved.
    • Techniques d’évaluation à domicile de la qualité de l’équilibre et de la force de préhension chez la personne âgée en perte d’autonomie ; Devices analysing balance quality and autonomy level

      Michel-Pellegrino, Valerie; Li, Ke; Hewson, David; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Duchêne, Jacques; Université de technologie de Troyes; Institut de myologie (Elsevier, 2009-11-24)
      Performing a movement from an initial stable posture requires the person to create disequilibrium. The forces of gravity that the person is subjected to would tend to make them fall. To counteract these problems, it is necessary to develop mechanisms of balance in order to move about. The degeneration of mechanisms of balance control has been largely measured in elderly subjects. The balance decline, the appearance of fear of falling, and the resulting loss of autonomy, constitute a major problem for public health. The IDéAS research group (UTT) addresses these critical issues by specialising in the development of innovative devices that enable the capacity of elderly to live autonomous to be evaluated in their own homes. The devices used have been designed in order to perform frequent evaluation of the quality of balance and grip strength. These technologies consist of a balance quality tester and the Grip-ball.
    • Techniques for improving the labelling process of sentiment analysis in the Saudi stock market

      AL-Rubaiee, Hamed Saad; Qiu, Renxi; Alomar, Khalid; Li, Dayou; University of Bedfordshire; King Abdulaziz University (Science and Information Organization, 2018-12-31)
      Sentiment analysis is utilised to assess users' feedback and comments. Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in this topic due to the spread and expansion of social networks. Users' feedback and comments are written in unstructured formats, usually with informal language, which presents challenges for sentiment analysis. For the Arabic language, further challenges exist due to the complexity of the language and no sentiment lexicon is available. Therefore, labelling carried out by hand can lead to mislabelling and misclassification. Consequently, inaccurate classification creates the need to construct a relabelling process for Arabic documents to remove noise in labelling. The aim of this study is to improve the labelling process of the sentiment analysis. Two approaches were utilised. First, a neutral class was added to create a framework of reliable Twitter tweets with positive, negative, or neutral sentiments. The second approach was improving the labelling process by relabelling. In this study, the relabelling process applied to only seven random features (positive or negative): "earnings" (Arabic source), "losses" (Arabic source), "green colour" (Arabic source:Arabic source), "growing" (Arabic source), "distribution" (Arabic source), "decrease" (Arabic source), "financial penalty" (Arabic source), and "delay" (Arabic source). Of the 48 tweets documented and examined, 20 tweets were relabelled and the classification error was reduced by 1.34%.
    • Technology enhanced learning - where's the evidence?

      Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian; Open University (2011-01-01)
      This paper reports on a UK Higher Education Academy funded project investigating the use of technology to enhance student learning in higher education. It reviews the literature to explore what evidence exists to illustrate that technology enhances learning, and how this evidence changes the practice of teachers in higher education. The contested nature of evidence, and of enhancements in student learning are discussed. The findings indicate that while the use of technology may enhance learning, the evidence supporting these claims is tangential, as is the evidence illustrating changes in the practices of HE teachers.