• Validating performance on writing test tasks

      Weir, Cyril J.; University of Bedfordshire (2013-07-11)
    • Validating speaking test rating scales through microanalysis of fluency using PRAAT

      Tavakoli, Parveneh; Nakatsuhara, Fumiyo; Hunter, Ann-Marie; University of Reading; University of Bedfordshire; St. Mary’s University (2017-07-06)
    • Validating two types of EAP reading-into-writing test tasks

      Chan, Sathena Hiu Chong; University of Bedfordshire (2013-07-11)
    • Validation of a smartphone gait analysis system

      Hammoud, Ali; Duchêne, Jacques; Abou-Ghaida, Hussein; Mottet, Serge; Goujon, Jean-Marc; Hewson, David; University of Technology of Troyes (Springer, 2015-12-31)
      This paper presents a validation study of a smartphone for detection of heel strike and foot flat during gait, in comparison with a validated in-shoe plantar pressure system. The aim of the study is to produce a smartphone gait analysis system that is able to estimate gait parameters in a non-controlled environment such as the home. The smartphone system using the built-in tri-axial accelerometer of the phone, and provides a reliable estimation of the number of steps and the stride-to-stride interval (ISI). Comparison with the results produced by an F-Scan mobile system showed an excellent relationship (R2=0.97). When Detrended Fluctuation Analysis was applied to the ISI calculated for each system, no significant differences were observed for a paired t-test. These findings open the way for other gait features such as gait velocity, walking distance and step length to be calculated using smartphones. Such a technique could be used to detect the loss of complexity in signals due to advanced age or disease in order to assess frailty and risk of falls in the elderly in ecological conditions.
    • Validation of balance-quality assessment using a modified bathroom scale

      Hewson, David; Duchêne, Jacques; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Université de Technologie de Troyes (Institute of Physics, 2015-01-13)
      The balance quality tester (BQT), based on a standard electronic bathroom scale has been developed in order to assess balance quality. The BQT includes automatic detection of the person to be tested by means of an infrared detector and bluetooth communication capability for remote assessment when linked to a long-distance communication device such as a mobile phone. The BQT was compared to a standard force plate for validity and agreement. The two most widely reported parameters in balance literature, the area of the centre of pressure (COP) displacement and the velocity of the COP displacement, were compared for 12 subjects, each of whom was tested on ten occasions on each of the 2 days. No significant differences were observed between the BQT and the force plate for either of the two parameters. In addition a high level of agreement was observed between both devices. The BQT is a valid device for remote assessment of balance quality, and could provide a useful tool for long-term monitoring of people with balance problems, particularly during home monitoring.
    • Validity of the Working Alliance Inventory within child protection services

      Killian, Mike; Forrester, Donald; Westlake, David; Antonopoulou, Vivi (SAGE, 2015-07-27)
      The Working Alliance Inventory remains a widely studied measure of quality of therapeutic relationships between the practitioner and client. No prior study has examined the psychometrics and validity of the Working Alliance Inventory–Short (WAI-S) in a sample of families, social workers, and trained observers within child protection services. Surveys were completed by 130 families, social workers concerning 274 cases, and observers following 165 home visits during the first wave of data collected from a randomized controlled trial of child protection services. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on three versions of the WAI-S and demonstrated moderate to good model fit. Convergent construct validity was found with other standardized measures. Results support the use of the WAI-S during in child protection services practice and research. Future research into family engagement in child protection social work services should focus on the working relationship.
    • Valuation impacts of environmental protection taxes and regulatory costs in heavy-polluting industries

      Tu, Wen-Jun; Yue, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Wei; Crabbe, M. James C.; Ningbo University; European University Cyprus; Porto Polytechnic; Qingdao University; Oxford University; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (MDPI, 2020-03-20)
      In 2016, the issue of the Environmental Protection Tax Law indicated the enhancement of environmental protection in China. This study examines the market reaction to firms in heavy-polluting industries, and the effects of external legal institutional quality and internal environmental disclosure on firm value around the passage of Environmental Protection Tax Law. Using an event study approach coupled with ordinary least square regressions, the researchers find a significantly negative market reaction to firms in heavy-polluting industries, but this negative reaction varies depending on the expected increase in future regulatory costs. Specifically, the above negative reaction is stronger when the firm reveals that itself or its subsidiary belongs to heavy-polluting industry, however it would be mitigated when a firm is in a region with better quality of legal institutions or discloses environmental improvement activities. Overall, the results are consistent with the market perceiving that the environmental protection tax law enacted would increase regulatory costs for firms in heavy-polluting industries, and also show the higher-quality regional legal institutions and more efforts on environmental protection could relieve the market’s pessimism caused by uncertainty.
    • The value of fostering physical literacy

      Whitehead, Margaret; Durden-Myers, Elizabeth; Pot, Niek; University of Bedfordshire; Liverpool John Moores University; Windesheim University of Applied Sciences (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2018-12-31)
      This article considers the value of physical literacy. Unequivocal support for aspects of the concept can be found in philosophy, neuroscience, social justice, the nature of human development, psychology, and sociocultural studies. These areas of support will be outlined and then related to the practical value of physical literacy in the school context. This article will close with a discussion centered on claims that physical literacy is an end in itself rather than predominantly ameans to other ends. It is the aim of this article to communicate the unique value of fostering physical literacy within the school context, including the support and relationship to other interrelated disciplines.
    • Values, attributes and practices of dance artists in inclusive dance talent development contexts

      Urmston, Elsa; Aujla, Imogen (Taylor & Francis, 2019-09-17)
      There is a paucity of research focused on understanding the qualities which underpin dance artists’ practice in working with talented young dancers with disabilities. This study investigated what informs how dance artists work in inclusive dance talent development contexts. Four dance class observations were conducted to provide evidence of dance artists’ qualities in practice. Six dance artists participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic data analysis revealed four categories: the dance persona; values; attributes; and practices of dance artists. The dance persona was typified by characteristics such as being human, humility, altruism, and confidence. Artists’ values and attributes included celebrating difference, aspiring towards equality and relationality. Their practices were exemplified by varied differentiation strategies and an emphasis on reflection. These findings provide new insight into what drives artists working with dancers with and without disabilities, and aids better understanding of best practice in this context.
    • Valuing families' preferences for drug treatment: a discrete choice experiment

      Shanahan, Marian; Seddon, Jennifer L.; Ritter, Alison; De Abreu Lourenco, Richard; University of New South Wales; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2019-09-10)
      The burden on family members of those who are dependent on illicit drugs is largely unidentified despite the presence of significant negative financial, health and social impacts. This makes it difficult to provide appropriate services and support. This study aimed to assess the preferences for treatment attributes for heroin dependence among family members affected by the drug use of a relative and to obtain a measure of the intangible economic benefit. Discrete choice experiment. Data were analysed using mixed logit which accounted for repeated responses. Australia PARTICIPANTS: Eligible participants were Australian residents of 18+ years of age with a relative with problematic drug use. Complete data on 237 respondents were analysed; 21 invalid responses were deleted. Participant preference for likelihood of staying in treatment, family conflict, own health status, contact with police and monetary contribution to a charitable organisation providing treatment. All attributes were significant, and the results suggest there was a preference for longer time in treatment, less family discord, better own health status, less likelihood of their relative encountering police, and while they were willing to contribute to a charity for treatment to be available, they prefer to pay less not more. In order of relative importance, participants were willing to pay an additional $4.46 (95% CI 3.33-5.60) for treatment which resulted in an additional 1% of heroin users staying in treatment for longer than 3 months, $42.00 (95% CI 28.30-55.69) to avoid 5 days per week of family discord, $87.94 (95% CI 64.41-111.48) for treatment options that led to an improvement in their own health status, and $129.66 (95% CI 53.50-205.87) for each 1% decline in the chance of police contact. Drug treatment in Australia appears to have intangible benefits for affected family members. Families are willing to pay for treatment which reduces family discord, improves their own health, increases time in treatment and reduces contact with police. BACKGROUND AND AIMS DESIGN SETTING MEASUREMENTS FINDINGS CONCLUSIONS
    • Variability of competitive performance of distance runners

      Hopkins, William G.; Hewson, David (Wolters Kluwer, 2001-09-30)
      PURPOSE: The typical variation in an athlete's performance from race to race sets a benchmark for assessing the utility of performance tests and the magnitude of factors affecting medal prospects. We report here the typical variation in competitive performance of endurance runners. METHODS: Repeated-measures analysis of log-transformed official race times provided the typical within-athlete variation in performance as coefficients of variation (CV). The types of race were cross-country runs (4 races over 9 wk), summer road runs (5 races over 4 wk), winter road runs (4 races over 9 wk), half marathons (3 races over 13 wk and 2 races over 22 wk), and marathons (2 races over 22 wk). RESULTS: Typical variation of times for the fastest quartile of male runners was 1.2-1.9% in the cross-country and road runs, 2.7% and 4.2% in half marathons, and 2.6% in marathons. Times for the slower half of runners in most events were more variable than those of the faster half (ratio of slower/faster CV, 1.0-2.3). Times of younger adult runners were more variable than times of older runners (ratio of younger/older CV, 1.1-1.8). Times of male runners were generally more variable than those of female runners (ratio of male/female CV, 0.9-1.7). CONCLUSION: Tests of endurance power suitable for assessing the smallest worthwhile changes in running performance for top runners need CV < or = 2.5% and < or = 1.5% for tests simulating half or full marathons and shorter running races, respectively. Most of the differences in variability of race times between types of race, ability groups, age groups, and sexes probably arise from differences in competitive experience and attitude toward competing.
    • Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs): current state, challenges, potentials and way forward

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; University of Bedfodshire (IEEE, 2014-10-27)
      Recent advances in wireless communication technologies and auto-mobile industry have triggered a significant research interest in the field of VANETs over the past few years. VANET consists of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications supported by wireless access technologies such as IEEE 802.11p. This innovation in wireless communication has been envisaged to improve road safety and motor traffic efficiency in near future through the development of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). Hence, government, auto-mobile industries and academia are heavily partnering through several ongoing research projects to establish standards for VANETs. The typical set of VANET application areas, such as vehicle collision warning and traffic information dissemination have made VANET an interested field of wireless communication. This paper provides an overview on current research state, challenges, potentials of VANETs as well the way forward to achieving the long awaited ITS.
    • Veils and sensors: an artistic intervention with archival moving image material

      Egbe, Amanda (2020-09-15)
      This demonstration showcases experiments, and interventions with moving image archival materials by the author. The outcomes reflect a wider research into duplication practices in digital moving image archival practices. Artistic interventions are utilised to explore the technological and cultural gestures of these practices. The demonstrations are in the form of moving images artworks employing standard projection and mixed reality.
    • Ventriloquation and ghostwriting as responses to oppression in therapy

      Simon, Gail (Wiley, 2016-07-02)
      Background People coming to therapy as part of their recovery from torture may choose not to speak or write about their experiences, yet the process of seeking asylum requires that they must hand over their life stories for a true–false adjudication with potentially life and death consequences. When people have been silenced and speaking has become dangerous, there are major ethical challenges for the activist practitioner who, along with the person who has experienced torture, sees the importance of stories not only being understood and shared in ways which are factual but which contain truth. Methods I share my experiments with writing as a form of inquiry, specifically ghostwriting and ventriloquation. Findings These have the effects of (1) moving the therapeutic process into a collaborative inquiry between the client, an asylum seeker, and me as both counsellor and expert witness; (2) letting fictionalised tellings of ‘real life’ reveal the hidden and complex life stories of clients and counsellors and (3) sharing stories which would otherwise remain hidden and risk perpetuating oppressive practices. Implications for practice Ghostwriting and ventriloquation offer the practitioner-researcher ways of speaking from a first-person position, from ‘within’ experience rather than a distanced ‘about-ness’ position. In this dialogical writing, I use actual and imagined inner and outer voices to enable the sound of talk and thought to be reflexively and empathically heard and felt by readers. Relational ethics are considered in how to imagine the other and manage ownership of stories without reproducing oppressive practices.
    • Veronica Forrest-Thomson: poet on the periphery

      Farmer, Gareth (Palgrave MacMillan, 2017-10-11)
      This study offers a comprehensive examination of the work of the young poet and scholar, Veronica Forrest-Thomson (1947-1975) in the context of a literary-critical revolution of the late sixties and seventies and evaluates her work against contemporary debates in poetry and poetics. Gareth Farmer explores Forrest-Thomson’s relationship to the conflicting models of literary criticism in the twentieth century such as the close-reading models of F.R Leavis and William Empson, postructuralist models, and the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein.  Written by the leading scholar on Forrest-Thomson’s work, this study explores Forrest-Thomson’s published work as well as unpublished materials from the Veronica Forrest-Thomson Archive. Drawing on close readings of Forrest-Thomson’s writings, this study argues that her work enables us reevaluate literary-critical history and suggests new paradigms for the literary aesthetics and poetics of the future.
    • Vertical stiffness asymmetries during drop jumping are related to ankle stiffness asymmetries

      Maloney, Sean J.; Richards, Joanna C.; Nixon, Daniel G.D.; Harvey, Lewis J.; Fletcher, Iain M. (Wiley, 2016-03-31)
      Asymmetry in vertical stiffness has been associated with increased injury incidence and impaired performance. The determinants of vertical stiffness asymmetry have not been previously investigated. Eighteen healthy males performed three unilateral drop jumps during which vertical stiffness and joint stiffness of the ankle and knee were calculated. Reactive strength index was also determined during the jumps using the ratio of flight time to ground contact time. ‘Moderate’ differences in vertical stiffness (t17 = 5.49; P < 0.001), ‘small’ differences in centre of mass displacement (t17 = -2.19; P = 0.043) and ‘trivial’ differences in ankle stiffness (t17 = 2.68; P = 0.016) were observed between stiff and compliant limbs. A model including ankle stiffness and reactive strength index symmetry angles explained 79% of the variance in vertical stiffness asymmetry (R2 = 0.79; P < 0.001). None of the symmetry angles were correlated to jump height or reactive strength index. Results suggest that asymmetries in ankle stiffness may play an important role in modulating vertical stiffness asymmetry in recreationally trained males.
    • Victim Support's Adult survivors of child sexual abuse project: an evaluation of a co-created service delivery model

      Allnock, Debra; Wager, Nadia; Victim Support; University of Bedfordshire (Victim Support, 2016-06-13)
      Victim Support (VS), in partnership with the National Association for People Abused in Childhood (NAPAC), was successful in obtaining funding from the Child Abuse Inquiry Fund to develop a strengthened service response to adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The original aim of this work, as cited by Victim Support, was to: Create a robust and evidenced model for wrap-around support, based on existing proven frameworks, academic review and input from other expert services and survivors of CSA. The model that was developed, and which constitutes the subject of this report, is known  as the Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse  (or See website for details of funding pots: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/child-sexual-abuse-inquiry-2m-funding-boost-for-victims ASCSA, for short) project. The project was informed by an evidence review carried out by the University of Bedfordshire prior to the start of the project. It was then fully developed through a process of ‘co-creation’, involving Victim Support staff and adult survivors of CSA (hereafter referred to as ‘consultants’. The University of Bedfordshire has evaluated the experiences of co-creation and this report presents these findings and recommendations for future service development using a co-creation model.
    • Victims’ voices: understanding the emotional impact of cyberstalking and individuals’ coping responses

      Worsley, Joanne D.; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M.; Short, Emma; Corcoran, Rhiannon (SAGE, 2017-05-23)
      Recent quantitative research has identified similar detrimental effects on victims of cyberstalking as those that arise from traditional stalking. The current study thematically analyzed one hundred victim narratives gathered by means of an online survey with a view to assessing the mental health and well-being implications of the experience of cyberstalking. Coping strategies employed by victims and the perceived effectiveness of each strategy were also explored. The findings suggest that the emotional impact of cyberstalking predominantly includes comorbid anxiety and depression. Common coping strategies adopted by victims in our sample include avoidant coping, ignoring the perpetrator, confrontational coping, support seeking, and cognitive reframing. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that the ramifications of cyberstalking are widespread, affecting psychological, social, interpersonal, and economic aspects of life. To adapt, some victims made major changes to both their work and social life, with some ceasing employment and others modifying their usual daily activities. The widespread negative effects of cyberstalking identified in this study highlight that this phenomenon should be a concern to both legal and mental health professionals, particularly as the comments made by our sample illustrate the current inadequacy of response and provision. Recommendations are discussed and provided for law enforcement and mental health professionals.
    • Video-conferencing speaking tests: do they measure the same construct as face-to-face tests?

      Nakatsuhara, Fumiyo; Inoue, Chihiro; Berry, Vivien; Galaczi, Evelina D.; ; University of Bedfordshire; British Council; Cambridge Assessment English (Routledge, 2021-08-23)
      This paper investigates the comparability between the video-conferencing and face-to-face modes of the IELTS Speaking Test in terms of scores and language functions generated by test-takers. Data were collected from 10 trained IELTS examiners and 99 test-takers who took two speaking tests under face-to-face and video-conferencing conditions. Many-facet Rasch Model (MFRM) analysis of test scores indicated that the delivery mode did not make any meaningful difference to test-takers’ scores. An examination of language functions revealed that both modes equally elicited the same language functions except asking for clarification. More test-takers made clarification requests in the video-conferencing mode (63.3%) than in the face-to-face mode (26.7%). Drawing on the findings, as well as practical implications, we extend emerging thinking about video-conferencing speaking assessment and the associated features of this modality in its own right.
    • Viewing, listening and waiting: explorations of the visual representations of anti-racism, anti-war and anti-nationalist protest

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2019-07-05)
      This presentation further explores the artistic frameworks developed in the project Where Were You in 1992? The project explores anti-racism, anti-fascism,anti war and anti-nationalist political action, beginning with the struggles of antifascism and racism in the UK to anti war and nationalism in Yugoslavia. The project through recourse to media strategies of montage from art historian Aby Warburg, through to artist, filmmaker Jean Luc Goddard, brings audio-visual content together with personal testimony to map the strategies of media activism in the 90’s. The presentation seeks to engage with activists at IIPPE to investigate the media archive of Where Were You in 1992? to explore notions and gestures of “waiting” that permeate political action, connecting their own experiences of activism with those in the archive.