• ‘[W]hat a small gift it was’ : Stella Benson and I Pose (1915)

      Darwood, Nicola (2017-07-07)
      Highlighting my own pedagogical approach to undergraduate and postgraduate research in which archival work, historical enquiry and close textual analysis are given equal weight, this paper draws extensively on Benson’s unpublished diaries and correspondence, exploring both Benson’s own engagement with the campaign for votes for women and her portrayal of that campaign in I Pose (1915) in which the protagonist spends her life  ‘exploring the adoption of new poses in a world where the old stereotypes no longer work’.
    • Wage determination in Britain: is there a local dimension?

      Church, Andrew; Hutchinson, Gillian (Routledge, 1989-07-01)
      CHURCH A. and HUTCHINSON G. (1989) Wage determination in Britain: is there a local dimension?, Reg. Studies 23, 289–300. This study presents an empirical regression analysis of wage determination in the five labour markets of Motherwell, Preston, Reading, Torquay, and the London Borough of Newham. The data source is a newly available questionnaire survey of approximately 1,000 establishments undertaken in 1984–5. The explanatory variables include the plant's size, ownership, industrial type, three proxies for labour quality (the proportion of youths, the proportion of females and the proportion of part-time workers) and a union recognition dummy variable. The results discuss the relative importance of both national and local influences on pay levels. CHURCH A. et HUTCHINSON G. (1989) La détermination des salaires en Grande-Bretagne: est-ce qu'il y a un optique local?, Reg Studies 23, 289–300. Cet article présente une analyse empirique de régression de la détermination des salaires dans cinq bassins d'emplois, à savoir Motherwell, Preston, Reading, Torquay et l'arrondissement de Newham à Londres. Les données proviennent des résultats d'une enquête par questionnaire embrassant un échantillon de 1 000 établissements effectuée en 1984–5 et qui ont paru récemment. Les variables explicatives comprennent la taille, la propriété, la nomenclature par activité principale, trois estimations de la qualité de la main-d'oeuvre (la proportion de jeunes, la proportion de femmes et la proportion de travailleurs à temps partiel) et une variable muette relative au comportement des syndicats. Les résultats permettent une discussion de l'importance relative des influences à la fois nationales et locales sur les niveaux des salaires. CHURCH A. und HUTCHINSON G. (1989) Festsetzung von Löhnen in Grossbritannien: sind diese irgendwie ortsbezogen?, Reg. Studies 23, 289–300. Diese Studie legt eine empirische Regressionsanalyse der Festsetzung von Löhnen in fünf Arbeitsmärkten vor: Motherwell, Preston, Reading, Torquay und Newham, einem Verwaltungsbezirk Gross-londons. Die Datenquelle ist eine vor kurzem zugänglich gemachte Erhebung, die sich im Jahre 1984–5 mittels Fragebogen an ungefähr 1000 Firmen gewandt hatte. Die erläuternden Veränderlichen enthalten: Betriebsgrösse, Besitzer, Industrietyp, drei stellvertretende Gruppen für die Art von Arbeitskräften (Anteil der Jugendlichen, Anteil der weiblichen Arbeitskräfte und Anteil der Kurzarbeiter) und eine blinde Veränderliche, welche Anerkennung einer Gewerkschaft darstellt. Die Ergebnisse behandeln die relative Bedeutung sowohl nationaler als auch örtlicher Einflüsse auf die Höhe der Löhne.
    • Wages, unions, the youth training scheme and the young workers scheme

      Hutchinson, Gillian; Church, Andrew (Wiley, 1989-05-01)
    • Walking in Jozi: guided tours, insecurity and urban regeneration in inner city Johannesburg

      Opfermann, Lena S. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2020-04-26)
      This article explores how the emerging tourism sector in Johannesburg is intertwined with current processes of urban regeneration and development. Using walking tours as a case study, I illustrate how tour operators navigate insecure urban spaces and contribute to their (re-)development by performing (in)security, by offering ‘authentic’ experiences and by actively engaging in social and economic activities. I argue that walking tours promote a particular kind of urban development that aims to appeal to a new urban middle class and is in line with the vision pursued by big private investors and new urban entrepreneurs. Similar to other global gentrification processes, this vision draws on Western notions of hip urban lifestyles and aesthetics in order to foster an image of the city as pan-African and cool. While making new spaces accessible, this approach to urban development also affects and threatens other inner city users, including African migrants living or working in precarious conditions. I contend that these side effects of the currently promoted urban regeneration have so far been overlooked. In order to create a social and sustainable urban development that supersedes apartheid-era spatial segregation, these effects should be taken into account by the tourism sector, by private investors and policy makers alike.
    • Waltharius and Carolingian morality: satire and lay values

      Stone, Rachel; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2013-01-07)
    • Wandering pattern sensing at S-band

      Yang, Xiaodong; Shah, Syed Aziz; Ren, Aifeng; Zhao, Nan; Fan, Dou; Hu, Fangming; Ur-Rehman, Masood; von Deneen, Karen M.; Tian, Jie; Xidian University; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-12-27)
      Increasing prevalence of dementia has posed several challenges for care-givers. Patients suffering from dementia often display wandering behavior due to boredom or memory loss. It is considered to be one of the challenging conditions to manage and understand. Traits of dementia patients can compromise their safety causing serious injuries. This paper presents investigation into the design and evaluation of wandering scenarios with patients suffering from dementia using an S-band sensing technique. This frequency band is the wireless channel commonly used to monitor and characterize different scenarios including random, lapping, and pacing movements in an indoor environment. Wandering patterns are characterized depending on the received amplitude and phase information of that measures the disturbance caused in the ideal radio signal. A secondary analysis using support vector machine is used to classify the three patterns. The results show that the proposed technique carries high classification accuracy up to 90% and has good potential for healthcare applications.
    • Wardopoly: game-based experiential learning in nurse education

      Henderson, Bernadette; Kofinas, Alexander K.; Clements, Andrew James; Webb, Melanie; James, Alison; Nerantzi, Chrissi; University of Bedfordshire; University of Winchester; Manchester Metropolitan University (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-03-27)
    • Warm-up intensity does not affect the ergogenic effect of sodium bicarbonate in adult men

      Jones, Rebecca Louise; Stellingwerff, Trent; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Swinton, Paul; ; University of Bedfordshire; Canadian Sport Institute–Pacific; University of Victoria; et al. (Human Kinetics, 2021-09-03)
      This study determined the influence of a high (HI) vs. low-intensity (LI) cycling warm-up on blood acid-base responses and exercise capacity following ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB; 0.3 g·kg-1 body-mass (BM)) or a placebo (PLA; maltodextrin) 3-hours prior to warm-up. Twelve men (21±2 years, 79.2±3.6 kg BM, maximum power output (Wmax) 318±36 W) completed a familiarisation and four double-blind trials completed in a counterbalanced order: HI warm-up with SB (HISB); HI warm-up with PLA (HIPLA); LI warm-up with SB (LISB); and LI warm-up with PLA (LIPLA). LI warm-up was 15-minutes at 60%Wmax, while the HI warm-up (typical of elites) featured LI followed by 2 x 30-sec (3-minute break) at Wmax, finishing 30-minute prior to a cycling capacity test at 110%Wmax (CCT110%). Blood bicarbonate and lactate were measured throughout. SB supplementation increased blood bicarbonate (+6.4 [95%CI: 5.7 to 7.1 mmol·L-1]) prior to greater reductions with high intensity warm-up (-3.8 [95%CI: -5.8 to -1.8 mmol·L-1]). However, during the 30-minute recovery, blood bicarbonate rebounded and increased in all conditions, with concentrations ~5.3mmol·L-1 greater with SB supplementation (P<0.001). Blood bicarbonate significantly declined during the CCT110% with greater reductions following SB supplementation (-2.4 [95%CI: -3.8 to -0.90 mmol·L-1]). Aligned with these results, SB supplementation increased total work done during the CCT110% (+8.5 [95%CI: 3.6 to 13.4 kJ], ~19% increase) with no significant main effect of warm-up intensity (+0.0 [95%CI: -5.0 to 5.0 kJ). Collectively, the results demonstrate that SB supplementation can improve HI cycling capacity irrespective of prior warm-up intensity, likely due to blood alkalosis.
    • Warm-up intensity does not influence the beneficial effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on cycling performance

      Jones, Rebecca Louise; Stellingwerff, Trent; Swinton, P.; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Sale, Craig (2016-12-21)
    • Washback and writing assessment

      Green, Anthony; University of Bedfordshire (2012-03-15)
    • Washback in language assessment

      Green, Anthony (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012-11-05)
      “Washback” (alternatively“backwash”) is a term used in education to describe the influence, whether beneficial or damaging, of an assessment on the teaching and learning that precedes and prepares for that assessment. Over the past thirty years, washback, often conceived as one instance of “impact” or the range of effects, that assessment may have on society more generally, has become established as a popular topic for applied linguistics research. Studies have covered a variety of contexts from national and international tests administered to millions of test takers to the classroom assessment practices of individual teachers. Researchers have employed a range of methods including small-scale observational studies and much more extensive questionnaire surveys, often making use of mixed methods to access different perspectives on the issues. These have revealed washback to be a complex phenomenon, closely associated with and affected by established practices, beliefs and attitudes. Although test developers increasingly recognize the importance of washback and impact in evaluating assessment use, it remains to be fully integrated into standard validation practice.
    • Washback to learning outcomes: a comparative study of IELTS preparation and university pre-sessional language courses

      Green, Anthony (Taylor & Francis, 2007-04-25)
      This study investigated whether dedicated test preparation classes gave learners an advantage in improving their writing test scores. Score gains following instruction on a measure of academic writing skills—the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) academic writing test—were compared across language courses of three types; all designed for international students preparing for entry to UK universities. Course types included those with a test preparation focus, those designed to introduce students to academic writing in the university setting and those combining the two. In addition to IELTS academic writing test scores, data relating to differences in participants and practices across courses were collected through supplementary questionnaire and test instruments. To take account of the large number of moderating variables and non-linearity in the data, a neural network approach was used in the analysis. Findings indicated no clear advantage for focused test preparation.
    • Watching over or working with? understanding social work innovation in response to extra-familial harm

      Wroe, Lauren; Lloyd, Jenny; University of Bedfordshire (Social Sciences, 2020-04-01)
      This paper critically reflects on the role of surveillance and trusted relationships in social work in England and Wales. It explores the characteristics of relationships of trust and relationships of surveillance and asks how these approaches apply to emerging policy and practices responses to extra-familial forms of harm (EFH). Five bodies of research that explore safeguarding responses across a range of public bodies are drawn on to present an analytical framework that explores elements of safeguarding responses, constituting relationships of trust or relationships of surveillance and control. This analytic framework is applied to two case studies, each of which detail a recent practice innovation in response to EFH studied by the authors, as part of a larger body of work under the Contextual Safeguarding programme. The application of this framework signals a number of critical issues related to the focus/rationale, methods and impact of interventions into EFH that should be considered in future work to address EFH, to ensure young people’s rights to privacy and participation are upheld.
    • Water footprint assessment for coal-to-gas in China

      Wang, Jianliang; Liu, Xiaojie; Geng, Xu; Bentley, Yongmei; Zhang, Chunhua; Yang, Yuru (Springer, 2019-01-01)
      To increase its domestic gas production and achieve cleaner end-use utilization of its coal resources, China is actively promoting its coal-to-gas (CTG) industry. However, one of the major concerns for CTG development is the consequent significant water usage. To better understand this aspect, this paper presents a quantitative assessment of the water footprint (WF) for China’s CTG industry. The results show that the WF of CTG in China is typically in the region of 0.055 m3 water per cubic meter of produced gas. In addition, the analysis of the components of this WF indicates that most of the water resources are used both in the process of CTG production itself, and also in the dilute discharge of pollutants. In terms of the planned production capacity of China’s CTG projects, this paper finds that the water use in some regions of Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi and Liaoning may account 30–40% of regional water resources, which means the large-scale development of CTG projects may present significant risks to regional water resources. Therefore, this paper suggests that the status of regional water availability should be one of the key factors considered by policy makers in order to achieve sustainable development of the country’s CTG industry.
    • Water Framework Directive: valuation of recreational benefits of improvements in water quality - potential benefits and data requirements

      Church, Andrew; Gilchrist, Paul; Ravenscroft, Neil; Taylor, Becky (Collaborative Research Programme on River Basin Management Planning Economics, Project 4f, DEFRA, 2008-01-01)
      Collaborative Research Programme on River Basin Management Planning Economics, Project 4f, DEFRA., London, UK
    • Water use for shale gas extraction in the Sichuan Basin, China

      Wang, Jianliang; Liu, Mingming; Bentley, Yongmei; Feng, Lianyong; Zhang, Chunhua; China University of Petroleum; University of Bedfordshire; Economics & Technology Research Institute, Beijing (Elsevier, 2018-08-07)
      This study investigates the use of water for extracting shale gas in the Sichuan Basin of China. Both net water use and water intensity (i.e., water use per unit of gas produced) of shale wells are estimated by applying a process-based life cycle inventory (LCI) model. The results show that the net water use and water intensity are around 24500 m3/well and 1.9 m3 water/104m3 gas respectively, and that the fracturing and completion stage of shale gas extraction accounts for the largest share in net water use. A comparison shows that China's water use for shale gas extraction is generally higher than that of other countries. By considering the predicted annual drilling activities in the Sichuan Basin, we find that the annual water demand for shale gas development is likely to be negligible compared to total regional water supply. However, considering the water demand for shale gas extraction and the water demand from other sectors may make water availability a significant concern for China's shale gas development in the future.
    • Water-based sport and recreation: the facts

      Church, Andrew; Ravenscroft, Neil; Curry, N.; Burnside, N.; Fish, P.; Joyce, C.; Hill, D.; Smith, T.; Scott, P.; Markwell, S.; et al. (DEFRA, 2001-12-14)
      Publisher: DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs)
    • Wavelet transform analysis of the power spectrum of centre of pressure signals to detect the critical point interval of postural control

      Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Snoussi, Hichem; Hewson, David; Duchêne, Jacques; Université de Technologie de Troyes (Springer, 2010-12-31)
      The aim of this study was to develop a method to detecting the critical point interval (CPI) when sensory feedback is used as part of a closed-loop postural control strategy. Postural balance was evaluated using centre of pressure (COP) displacements from a force plate for 17 control and 10 elderly subjects under eyes open, eyes closed, and vibration conditions. A modified local-maximum-modulus wavelet transform analysis using the power spectrum of COP signals was used to calculate CPI. Lower CPI values indicate increased closed-loop postural control with a quicker response to sensory input. Such a strategy requires greater energy expenditure due to the repeated muscular interventions to remain stable. The CPI for elderly occurred significantly quicker than for controls, indicating tighter control of posture. Similar results were observed for eyes closed and vibration conditions. The CPI parameter can be used to detect differences in postural control due to ageing.
    • ‘We are not objects, we are not things’: ethnic minority women’s views of the UK home office immigration campaigns

      Dhaliwal, Sukhwant (Springer, 2016-05-01)
      The lead-up to the 2015 general election in the United Kingdom included considerable discussion about how to encourage women to vote (Grice, 2015). A poll conducted by TNS BMRB for BBC Radio Four ‘Woman’s Hour’ found that immigration was one of the top five concerns for the women who they polled (What do women think about the general election?, 2015). The same survey drew additional insights from a focus group session with six women from Bexleyheath in Southeast London. It seems that these six women viewed immigration as a problem, but, other than a passing reference to border controls and the impact of global elites on London’s house prices, there is little detail about what their specific concerns centred upon or stemmed from. This can be contrasted with interviewees on the Mapping Immigration Controversy (MIC) project1 who suggested that references to immigration can act as a proxy for other grievances, particularly concerns about the economy, access to housing, health care and education. Furthermore, the MIC surveys found that it is difficult to capture, statistically, the multiple factors that are encompassed when individuals say they are concerned about immigration (Jones et al., 2014; Bhattacharyya, 2013). In this short note, I will reflect on some of the key findings from two focus group sessions with ethnic minority women, and on the possibility that anti-immigration campaigns have the effect of making them think that their vote is far less important than the white majority vote. Renewed debates about intersectionality within the United Kingdom, and beyond, should remind us that women do not speak with one voice; Home Office messages on immigration could be received differently by women depending on the way that they experience multiple axes of power. The women who feel the impact of the Home Office’s immigration campaigns most acutely may be from ethnic minorities and particularly (but not only) those subject to immigration controls. It is not clear how many of the Bexleyheath focus group participants were from minority communities. In contrast, the MIC project held two focus groups to specifically gauge the views of ethnic minority women.