• Access and utilisation of primary health care services comparing urban and rural areas of Riyadh Providence, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

      Alfaqeeh, Ghadah Ahmad; Cook, Erica Jane; Randhawa, Gurch; Ali, Nasreen (BioMed Central, 2017-02-02)
      The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has seen an increase in chronic diseases. International evidence suggests that early intervention is the best approach to reduce the burden of chronic disease. However, the limited research available suggests that health care access remains unequal, with rural populations having the poorest access to and utilisation of primary health care centres and, consequently, the poorest health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the factors influencing the access to and utilisation of primary health care centres in urban and rural areas of Riyadh province of the KSA.
    • Access, inclusion and excellence : evaluating Stopgap Dance Company's IRIS programme

      Aujla, Imogen; Needham-Beck, Sarah; Stopgap Dance Company; University of Bedfordshire (Stopgap Dance Company, 2018-12-01)
      Among the numerous barriers to dance for disabled people, one of the key challenges in the UK has been the lack of progressive training routes for diabled dancers who wish to develop their talents.  Stopgap Dance Company sought to address this barrier by creating an inclusive talent development programme called IRIS.  Consisiting of four levels of increasing complexity, IRIS seeks to provide parity with mainstream training routes to help students progress their skills and confidence in dance. The aim of this research project was to evaluate IRIS in its first two years, while it was piloted with five groups.  The evaluation took into consideration the participants' experiences and outcomes of the programme using a longitudinal, mixed methods research design.
    • Accessibility and suitability of residential alcohol treatment for older adults

      Wadd, Sarah; Dutton, Maureen; Alcohol Research UK; University of Bedfordshire (Alcohol Research UK, 2017-11-20)
      This study sought to find out:- 1.       To what extent do residential alcohol rehabs have upper age thresholds? 2.       Are the needs of older adults different from those of younger adults in alcohol rehab? 3.       What are older adults’ experiences of alcohol rehab?
    • Accessibility and suitability of residential alcohol treatment for older adults: a mixed method study

      Wadd, Sarah; Dutton, Maureen; University of Bedfordshire (BMC, 2018-12-13)
      Background Whilst alcohol misuse is decreasing amongst younger adults in many countries, it is increasing in older adults. Residential rehabilitation (rehab) is a vital component of the alcohol treatment system, particularly for those with relatively complex needs and entrenched alcohol problems. In this study, we sought to find out to what extent rehabs in England have upper age limits that exclude older adults, whether rehabs are responsive to older adults’ age-related needs and how older adults experience these services. Method This is a mixed method study. A search was carried out of Public Health England’s online directory of rehabs to identify upper age thresholds. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with 16 individuals who had attended one of five residential rehabs in England and Wales since their 50th birthday. A researcher with experience of a later life alcohol problem conducted the interviews. Results Of the 118 services listed on Public Health England’s online directory of rehabs, 75% stated that they had an upper age limit that would exclude older adults. Perceived differences in values, attitudes and behaviour between younger and older residents had an impact on older residents’ experience of rehab. Activities organised by the rehabs were often based on physical activity that some older adults found it difficult to take part in and this could create a sense of isolation. Some older adults felt unsafe in rehab and were bullied, intimidated and subjected to ageist language and attitudes. Conclusion This study identified direct and indirect age discrimination in rehabs contrary to the law. Further research is required to find out if age discrimination exists in rehabs in other countries. Rehabs should remove arbitrary age limits and ensure that they are responsive to the needs of older adults.
    • Accessing pathways to training for young disabled dancers

      Aujla, Imogen; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire/Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing, 2019-03-19)
      The aim of this project was to investigate means of translating Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing (ISTD) syllabi for young disabled dancers. There are numerous barriers to dance for disabled people but one which has received increasing attention in recent years is the lack of systematic training available. Many non-disabled young people join private dance studios which provide an established progression route using staged syllabi and assessments in a range of dance genres. The ISTD recognised that this progression route should be more accessible for disabled young people, and that it could play a key role in opening pathways to dance. The organisation recruited a number of teachers and specialists, and commissioned a researcher from the University of Bedfordshire, to explore how this could be done.
    • Accompany: Acceptable robotiCs COMPanions for AgeiNg Years : multidimensional aspects of human-system interactions

      Amirabdollahian, Farshid; Op den Akker, Rieks; Bedaf, Sandra; Bormann, Richard; Draper, Heather; Evers, Vanessa; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; Ruiz, Carolina Gutierrez; Hewson, David; Hu, Ninghang; et al. (IEEE, 2013-12-31)
      With changes in life expectancy across the world, technologies enhancing well-being of individuals, specifically for older people, are subject to a new stream of research and development. In this paper we present the ACCOMPANY project, a pan-European project which focuses on home companion technologies. The projects aims to progress beyond the state of the art in multiple areas such as empathic and social human-robot interaction, robot learning and memory visualisation, monitoring persons and chores at home, and technological integration of these multiple approaches on an existing robotic platform, Care-O-Bot®3 and in the context of a smart-home environment utilising a multitude of sensor arrays. The resulting prototype from integrating these developments undergoes multiple formative cycles and a summative evaluation cycle towards identifying acceptable behaviours and roles for the robot for example role as a butler or a trainer. Furthermore, the evaluation activities will use an evaluation grid in order to assess achievement of the identified user requirements, formulated in form of distinct scenarios. Finally, the project considers ethical concerns and by highlighting principles such as autonomy, independence, enablement, safety and privacy, it embarks on providing a discussion medium where user views on these principles and the existing tension between some of these principles for example tension between privacy and autonomy over safety, can be captured and considered in design cycles and throughout project developments.
    • Accuracy across proficiency levels: A learner corpus approach. Jennifer Thewissen. Presses Universitaires de Louvain, Lougain-la-Neuve, Belgium (2015). 342pp.

      Inoue, Chihiro; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2017-09-04)
      A review of the book based on Thewissen’s PhD thesis, which used the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) (Granger et al., 2009) for two main purposes. The first purpose was to capture the development of linguistic accuracy of the argumentative essays written by learners of English at intermediate to advanced levels, namely B1 to C2 in the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) (Council of Europe, 2001). The second purpose was to create a set of L1-specific CEFR descriptors related to the linguistic accuracy by building on the results from the essays written by learners who have French as their L1.  
    • Accuracy of online health information about controlling childhood fever during the H1N1 influenza pandemic

      Kulendran, Lavenia; Atherton, Helen; Pappas, Yannis; Car, Josip (BCS, 2009-09-16)
    • Acetaminophen (paracetamol) induces hypothermia during acute cold stress

      Foster, Josh; Mauger, Alexis R.; Govus, Andrew; Hewson, David; Taylor, Lee; University of Bedfordshire; Loughborough University; University of Kent; Mid Sweden University; Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital (Springer, 2017-08-01)
      Acetaminophen is an over-the-counter drug used to treat pain and fever, but it has also been shown to reduce core temperature (Tc) in the absence of fever. However, this side effect is not well examined in humans, and it is unknown if the hypothermic response to acetaminophen is exacerbated with cold exposure.
    • Achieving improved quality and validity: reframing research and evaluation of learning technologies

      Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda (European Distance and E Learning Network, 2015-01-01)
      A critical reading of research literature relating to teaching and learning with technology for open, distance and blended education reveals a number of shortcomings in how investigations are conceptualised, conducted and reported. Projects often lack clarity about the nature of the enhancement that technology is intended to bring about. Frequently there is no explicit discussion of assumptions and beliefs that underpin research studies and the approaches used to investigate the educational impact of technologies. This presentation summarises a number of the weaknesses identified in published studies and considers the implications. Some ways in which these limitations could be avoided through a more rigorous approach to undertaking research and evaluation studies are then outlined and discussed.
    • Achieving reliable communication in vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs): A survey

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; Muhammad, Shehu; Eze, Joy C.; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-10-26)
      With the envisioned era of Internet of Vehicles (IoVs), all aspects of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) will be connected to improve transport safety, relieve traffic congestion, reduce air pollution, enhance the comfort of transportation and significantly reduce road accidents. In IoVs, regular exchange of current position, direction, velocity, etc., enables mobile vehicles to predict an upcoming accident and alert the human drivers in time or proactively take precautionary actions to avoid the accident. The actualization of this concept requires the use of robust error recovery approaches that can guarantee optimum reliability in terms of message delivery in vehicular networks. This paper surveys the error recovery potentials of different classical error control approaches such as automatic repeat request, forward error correction, and hybrid ARQ mechanism. The paper also explored new error recovery methods like network coding (NC) concept which consists of error recovery through NC with reception status information (RSI), and without RSI. Additionally, other error recovery techniques like repetition based approach for vehicular networks is discussed.
    • Acoustic mapping of submerged Stone Age sites – a HALD approach

      Grøn, Ole; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Smith, Morgan F.; Joy, Shawn; Tayong-Boumda, Rostand; Mäder, Andreas; Bleicher, Niels; Madsen, Bo; Cvikel, Deborah; Nilsson, Björn; et al. (MDPI, 2021-01-27)
      Acoustic response from lithics knapped by humans has been demonstrated to facilitate effective detection of submerged Stone Age sites exposed on the seafloor or embedded within its sediments. This phenomenon has recently enabled the non-invasive detection of several hitherto unknown submerged Stone Age sites, as well as the registration of acoustic responses from already known localities. Investigation of the acoustic-response characteristics of knapped lithics, which appear not to be replicated in naturally cracked lithic pieces (geofacts), is presently on-going through laboratory experiments and finite element (FE) modelling of high-resolution 3D-scanned pieces. Experimental work is also being undertaken, employing chirp sub-bottom systems (reflection seismic) on known sites in marine areas and inland water bodies. Fieldwork has already yielded positive results in this initial stage of development of an optimised Human-Altered Lithic Detection (HALD) method for mapping submerged Stone Age sites. This paper reviews the maritime archaeological perspectives of this promising approach, which potentially facilitates new and improved practice, summarizes existing data, and reports on the present state of development. Its focus is not reflection seismics as such, but a useful resonance phenomenon induced by the use of high-resolution reflection seismic systems.
    • Action to end child sexual abuse and exploitation: a review of the evidence

      Radford, Lorraine; Allnock, Debra; Hynes, Patricia; Shorrock, Sarah; UNICEF and End Violence Against Children; University of Central Lancashire; University of Bedfordshire (UNICEF and End Violence Against Children, 2020-12-01)
      Child sexual abuse and exploitation is prevalent in all countries of the world and has a significant impact on the health and wellbeing of children and adolescents. This report commissioned by UNICEF: * describes what is known about the extent, nature and consequences of child sexual abuse and exploitation; * reviews the evidence on effective interventions and strategies to prevent and respond; * synthesises these findings within the overarching INSPIRE and RESPECT strategic approach for violence prevention to recommend specific actions to prevent and respond to child sexual abuse and exploitation.
    • Activating media, memory and resistances: Where were you in 1992?

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2018-07-04)
      This paper will bring to the fore the resisting character of moving image materials situated as tactical and strategic, through their activation by archival and media practices. Where Were You in 1992? is a multi-platform time-based project that contends with the technologies and practices of activism. Starting from the anti-racist struggle in the UK and the resistance to ethno-nationalism in Yugoslavia, it explores the legacy of European 'liberalism', ‘multiculturalism’ and ‘social cohesion’. It contrasts these with notions of solidarity, anti-racism, and anti-authoritarianism. It gathers hitherto unseen or forgotten testimonies, still and moving images, minutes, leaflets, banners and working notes from individuals and organisations. The project uses the open source archive and notation platform pan.do/ra, and an archive established at the MayDay Rooms archive in London. The paper is concerned with how to mobilise audio-visual materials, testimony and metadata to investigate a global historical situation and map parallels between the social spaces of grassroots activism of the 1990s. Specifically the paper will focus on how specific moments of differing scale, such as the shift between analogue and digital (longue durée) on one hand, and the subjective description of political actions (historical events) on the other hand can be brought together in montage.
    • Active Inspiration Playmakers final report

      O'Donovan, Toni M.; Ives, Helen Maria; Bowler, Mark; Sammon, Paul; Goodyear, Victoria A.; University of Bedfordshire (Playmakers/University of Bedfordshire, 2016-11-01)
      Final Report the the 'Playmakers' project; a programme within the Virgin Active 'Active Inspiration' initiative. 
    • An active‐radio‐frequency‐identification system capable of identifying co‐locations and social‐structure: validation with a wild free‐ranging animal

      Ellwood, Stephen A.; Newman, Chris; Montgomery, Robert A.; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Buesching, Christina D.; Markham, Andrew; Mascolo, Cecilia; Trigoni, Niki; Pasztor, Bence; Dyo, Vladimir; et al. (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-07-17)
      Behavioural events that are important for understanding sociobiology and movement ecology are often rare, transient and localised, but can occur at spatially distant sites e.g. territorial incursions and co-locating individuals. Existing animal tracking technologies, capable of detecting such events, are limited by one or more of: battery life; data resolution; location accuracy; data security; ability to co-locate individuals both spatially and temporally. Technology that at least partly resolves these limitations would be advantageous. European badgers (Meles meles L.), present a challenging test-bed, with extra-group paternity (apparent from genotyping) contradicting established views on rigid group territoriality with little social-group mixing. In a proof of concept study we assess the utility of a fully automated Active-Radio-Frequency-Identification (aRFID) system combining badger-borne aRFID-tags with static, wirelessly-networked, aRFID-detector base-stations to record badger co-locations at setts (burrows) and near notional border latrines. We summarise the time badgers spent co-locating within and between social-groups, applying network analysis to provide evidence of co-location based community structure, at both these scales. The aRFID system co-located animals within 31.5 m (adjustable) of base-stations. Efficient radio transmission between aRFIDs and base-stations enables a 20 g tag to last for 2-5 years (depending on transmission interval). Data security was high (data stored off tag), with remote access capability. Badgers spent most co-location time with members of their own social-groups at setts; remaining co-location time was divided evenly between intra- and inter-social-group co-locations near latrines and inter-social-group co-locations at setts.Network analysis showed that 20-100% of tracked badgers engaged in inter-social-group mixing per week, with evidence of trans-border super-groups, i.e., badgers frequently transgressed notional territorial borders. aRFID occupies a distinct niche amongst established tracking technologies. We validated the utility of aRFID to identify co-locations, social-structure and inter- group mixing within a wild badger population, leading us to refute the conventional view that badgers (social-groups) are territorial and to question management strategies, for controlling bovine TB, based on this model. Ultimately aRFID proved a versatile system capable of identifying social-structure at the landscape scale, operating for years and suitable for use with a range of species.
    • Activity-related parenting practices: development of the parenting related to activity measure (PRAM) and links with mothers' eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise beliefs

      Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline; (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2014-11-06)
      This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders.
    • Acute and chronic effects of foam rolling vs eccentric exercise on ROM and force output of the plantar flexors

      Aune, Anne A.G.; Bishop, Chris; Turner, Anthony; Papadopoulos, Kostas; Budd, Sarah; Richardson, Mark; Maloney, Sean J. (Routledge, 2018-06-12)
      Foam rolling and eccentric exercise interventions have been demonstrated to improve range of motion (ROM). However, these two modalities have not been directly compared. Twenty-three academy soccer players (age: 18 ± 1; height: 1.74 ± 0.08 m; body mass: 69.3 ± 7.5 kg) were randomly allocated to either a foam rolling (FR) or eccentric exercise intervention designed to improve dorsiflexion ROM. Participants performed the intervention daily for a duration of four weeks. Measurements of dorsiflexion ROM, isometric plantar flexion torque and drop jump reactive strength index were taken at baseline (pre-intervention) and at three subsequent time-points (30-min post, 24-hours post and 4-weeks post). A significant time x group interaction effect was observed for dorsiflexion (P = 0.036), but not for torque or reactive strength index. For dorsiflexion, there was a significant increase in both acute (30-min; P < 0.001) and chronic (4-week; P < 0.001) ROM for the eccentric group, whilst FR exhibited only an acute improvement (P < 0.001). Eccentric training would appear a more efficacious modality than foam rolling for improving dorsiflexion ROM in elite academy soccer players.
    • Acute effect of breakfast glycaemic index and breaking up prolonged sitting on postprandial glucose and insulin in adult males

      Maylor, Benjamin D.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Orton, Charlie J.; Bailey, Daniel Paul (2015-11-20)
    • Acute effects of a loaded warm-up protocol on change of direction speed in professional badminton players

      Maloney, Sean J.; Turner, Anthony; Miller, Stuart; ; University of Bedfordshire; Middlesex University (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2014-10-31)
      It has previously been shown that a loaded warm-up may improve power performances. We examined the acute effects of loaded dynamic warm-up on change of direction speed (CODS), which had not been previously investigated. Eight elite badminton players participated in three sessions during which they performed vertical countermovement jump and CODS tests before and after undertaking the dynamic warm-up. The three warm-up conditions involved wearing a weighted vest (a) equivalent to 5% body mass, (b) equivalent to 10% body mass, and (c) a control where a weighted vest was not worn. Vertical jump and CODS performances were then tested at 15 seconds and 2, 4, and 6 minutes post warm-up. Vertical jump and CODS significantly improved following all warm-up conditions (P &lt; .05). Post warm-up vertical jump performance was not different between conditions (P = .430). Post warm-up CODS was significantly faster following the 5% (P = .02) and 10% (P &lt; .001) loaded conditions compared with the control condition. In addition, peak CODS test performances, independent of recovery time, were faster than the control condition following the 10% loaded condition (P = .012). In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that a loaded warm-up augmented CODS, but not vertical jump performance, in elite badminton players.