• Tri-band millimetre-wave antenna for body-centric networks

      Ur-Rehman, Masood; Adekanye, Michael; Chattha, Hassan Tariq; University of Bedfordshire; Islamic University Madinah (Elsevier, 2018-04-03)
      This paper presents design of a tri-band slotted patch antenna operating at millimetre-wave frequencies of 28 GHz, 38 GHz and 61 GHz. The proposed antenna carries an overall size of 5.1mm×5mm×0.254mm employing a single layer, slotted patch structure combining L- and F-shaped slots. It is excited by a single-feed microstrip line. The antenna is tested in free space as well as in wearable configurations and results show that it offers a good impedance matching, sufficient -10 dB bandwidth and wide radiation coverage at the three bands of interest effectively countering the effects of human body presence. It achieves a peak gain of 7.2 dBi in off-body and 8.3 dBi in on-body configuration. Minimum efficiency values are observed to be 85% in off-body while 54% in on-body scenarios. A comparative analysis with published relevant work shows that the proposed antenna is inexpensive, easy to integrate and works efficiently in tri-band wearable and implantable arrangements. These features make it a good candidate for current and future applications of Body-centric Networks operating at millimetre-wave ranges.
    • Triangulation in healthcare research: what does it achieve?

      Regmi, Krishna (Sage, 2014-01-01)
      In 2007 I started my PhD to examine to what extent health sector decentralisation would improve access to and utilisation of health services, and the challenges faced, if any, while accessing the essential health services using a qualitative paradigm within the primary healthcare context in Nepal. I involved a range of qualitative research methods – interviews, discussions and observations with health service users, providers, policy-planners and decision-makers – to capture the wider picture of the research process, content and context. Triangulation was one method used while reviewing, synthesising and interpreting field data. Triangulation has been advocated as a methodological technique not only to enhance the validity of the research findings but also to achieve ‘completeness’ and ‘confirmation’ of data using multiple methods or approaches, so as to minimise one method's weaknesses or challenges by the strengths of other methods. Is that always the case? This case study provides a broad picture considering what triangulation in research really is; what sort of evidence can be used as a basis for practice; why triangulation is important in research and the researching process; and how triangulation would contribute to make research findings ‘convincing’. I draw on my personal, as well as professional, perspectives and experiences.
    • Trilogy on strategies of disruption in research methodologies: article 1 of 3 the unsettlement of tourism studies: positive decolonization, deep listening, and dethinking today

      Hollinshead, Keith; Suleman, Rukeya; Nair, Bipithalal Balakrishnan (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2021-04-30)
      Recent years have witnessed the rise of many new and/or corrective approaches across the social sciences that have challenged the received assumptive frameworks through which the world is inspected and interpreted methodologically. Late decades have brought the rise of a new generation of scholars who work through "resistance politics" approaches in pursuit of, for instance, social justice causes or posthumanist convictions. The purpose of this article (and its two companion articles in later issues of Tourism, Culture & Communication) is to capture the possibilities and the tensions in the development and cultivation of such "disruptive" or "promiscuous" research acts, and to conceptually situate them within Tourism Studies—the domain that covers the "worldmaking"/"declarative power" of tourism to interpret and inscribe the peoples, places, pasts, and presents across the globe. In principally mining the neoteric and landmark text Disruptive Qualitative Inquiry (Brown, Carducci, and Kuby), an attempt is made to locate the interruptive craft of such unfolding disruptive thinking of and about tourism as rising numbers of Tourism Studies researchers themselves seek to decolonize their methodologies from the stranglehold of Western Modern Science and reverberate more positively with populations that have been subjugated or suppressed through tourism. In building up to the provision of a 30-term glossary (cumulatively provided across the said three companion articles) delineating the fresh thinking that is involved in such disruptive inquiry, this first article targets approaches that beckon forms of interpretive plural knowability, which demand the fluid acumen to map the less-fixed/fast-changeable populations of our time, and which are thereby decent yet rigorous in their critical multilogicality ; hence, this first article glossary covers terms such as "reversing the binaries," "promiscuous methodologies," and "working the hyphens." In this innovative light, the second companion article glossary identifies conceptualizations such as "guided wandering," "postqualitative research," and "survivance" in order to expand the ontology and epistemology of Tourism Studies, while the glossary in the third article offers conceptualizations such as "uncrossable methodolodies," "helicopter research," and "stuckness," which—in their different ways—speak to the transformative rhetorics of futurity for tourism and the peoples and places of the world.
    • Tripartite efflux pumps: energy is required for dissociation, but not assembly or opening of the outer membrane channel of the pump

      Janganan, Thamarai K.; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Zhang, Li; Borges-Walmsley, Maria Ines; Walmsley, Adrian R.; University of Durham; University of Birmingham (Wiley, 2013-05-30)
      The MtrCDE multidrug pump, from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is assembled from the inner and outer membrane proteins MtrD and MtrE, which are connected by the periplasmic membrane fusion protein MtrC. Although it is clear that MtrD delivers drugs to the channel of MtrE, it remains unclear how drug delivery and channel opening are connected. We used a vancomycin sensitivity assay to test for opening of the MtrE channel. Cells expressing MtrE or MtrE-E434K were insensitive to vancomycin; but became moderately and highly sensitive to vancomycin respectively, when coexpressed with MtrC, suggesting that the MtrE channel opening requires MtrC binding and is energy-independent. Cells expressing wild-type MtrD, in an MtrCE background, were vancomycin-insensitive, but moderately sensitive in an MtrCE-E434K background. The mutation of residues involved in proton translocation inactivated MtrD and abolished drug efflux, rendered both MtrE and MtrE-E434K vancomycin-insensitive; imply that the pump-component interactions are preserved, and that the complex is stable in the absence of proton flux, thus sealing the open end of MtrE. Following the energy-dependent dissociation of the tripartite complex, the MtrE channel is able to reseal, while MtrE-E434K is unable to do so, resulting in the vancomycin-sensitive phenotype. Thus, our findings suggest that opening of the OMP via interaction with the MFP is energy-independent, while both drug export and complex dissociation require active proton flux.
    • Tropomyosin isoforms show unexpected differential effects on actin polymerization

      Maytum, Robin; Dudekula, Khadar B. (Cell Press, 2017-02-03)
      Tropomyosin is a rod-like coiled-coil protein that forms a continuous filament that is weakly associated, but firmly-attached to the surface of the actin filaments in all eukaryotic cells. Simple eukaryotes such as yeasts have only one or two different tropomyosin isoforms which are known to be essential and perform roles in regulating the actin cytoskeleton. However higher eukaryotes have larger numbers of tropomyosins, the number of which appear linked to organismal complexity. Mammals have 4 genes producing over 40 different isoforms by alternative splicing.
    • Tropomyosin isoforms show unexpected differential effects on actin polymerization

      Maytum, Robin; Dudekula, Khadar B.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Edinburgh (American Chemical Society, 2017-02-03)
      Tropomyosin is a rod-like coiled-coil protein that forms a continuous filament that is weakly associated, but firmly-attached to the surface of the actin filaments in all eukaryotic cells. Simple eukaryotes such as yeasts have only one or two different tropomyosin isoforms which are known to be essential and perform roles in regulating the actin cytoskeleton. However higher eukaryotes have larger numbers of tropomyosins, the number of which appear linked to organismal complexity. Mammals have 4 genes producing over 40 different isoforms by alternative splicing. In higher organisms tropomyosin is best known and characterized in the regulation of striated muscle contraction. The role of tropomyosin outside of muscle is less well understood. It is generally thought to have a regulatory role in controlling interactions of actin-binding proteins and in providing additional stability to actin-filaments. In the latter case has been considered that tropomyosin binds to actin-filaments some time after their formation, both making them mechanically stiffer and protecting them from breakdown. We have produced a range of recombinant tropomyosins from all four mammalian genes and characterized their actin-binding affinities in a cosedimentation assay. We have then used them to systematically study the effects of different isoforms of tropomyosin on actin polymerization for the first time. We have monitored actin polymerization by the well-characterised change in fluorescence of a pyrene-label attached to actin. Actin polymerisation is monitored by measuring the significant fluorescence enhancement on polymerization. Our results characterize the actin-affinities of some of the TPM3 and TPM4 isoforms for the first time, These are in the same general range as mammalian isoforms previously characterized by our group and others. We demonstrate differential effects of the different isoforms on actin-polymerisation for the first time. The data unexpectedly show the most significant effects of the different isoforms appears to be in the early initiation / elongation stages of polymerizations. This is unexpected as tropomyosin is only considered to have significant affinity for actin filaments through itself forming a polymer along the surface of an actin filament. Different isoforms appear capable of both enhancing and inhibiting the early stages of polymerization, with examples of the shorter 6-actin spanning TPM1 gene isoforms showing a significant reduction in the lag-phase of early polymerization. These differential effects on different isoforms provides a new role for tropomyosin in not only stabilizing filaments, but also in helping catalyze their formation.
    • Troubled waters in the Mare Nostrum: interception and push-backs of migrants in the Mediterranean and the European Convention on Human Rights

      Borelli, Silvia; Stanford, Ben; University of Bedfordshire (International Strategic Research Organization, 2014)
      The practice of ‘push-backs’ in the Mediterranean Sea, in which vessels carrying migrants are intercepted and forced to return to the State from which they departed (or from which they are presumed to have departed) raises serious issues from the perspective of international human rights law. In the wake of the spate of recent tragedies, in which innocent women, children and men attempting to traverse the Mediterranean in order to reach European shores have lost their lives, States and European institutions are finally responding to these issues. The present piece explores the legality of the practice of push-backs under international human rights standards, particularly the European Convention on Human Rights, and offers an assessment of the ongoing developments within the European Union. The piece offers a preliminary assessment of the Draft Regulation relating to joint migration control operations at sea under the auspices of Frontex which aims belatedly to ensure that migration control operations incorporate an element of protection of human life and other fundamental human rights.
    • Trust and mistrust in the lives of forcibly displaced women and children

      Hynes, Patricia (Policy Press, 2017-07-20)
      This paper aims to consider the experiences of displaced women and children throughout the experience of displacement and the issue of trust (or mistrust) throughout this journey towards future emplacement. Issues around trust and mistrust in conflict situations and considerations around interpersonal and broader based gender-based violence in politicised contexts are explored. Various stages of displacement are viewed and, through the use of examples, from experiences within refugee camps, reception in host countries and resettlement in countries of asylum insights into the lived experiences of displaced women and children are provided. This paper therefore draws upon research projects and practitioner experience, including research carried out within refugee camps, in the UK on the dispersal of asylum seekers, qualitative research into agency responses to the trafficking of children and young people, plus a scoping study involving qualitative research into non-statutory understandings of trafficking. 
    • Trust into mistrust: the uncertain marriage between public and private sector practice for middle managers in education

      Thompson, Carol; Wolstencroft, Peter; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2018-05-08)
      The role of the middle manager has proved to be a difficult one to define due to the fluid nature of the tasks performed and the heterogeneity of understanding that exists for the term. This is further complicated by the differences associated with the context in which individual manager’s work. This research, which explores the drive towards neo-liberalism and the subsequent adoption of leadership and management practice from the private sector, makes a comparison between the roles of managers in English education with those in other settings. Using a questionnaire with 252 responses and interviews with 6 managers in the private and public sector, the role of middle managers was compared to identify the similarities and differences between organisations driven by social policy as opposed to profit. Participants surveyed were based in primary, secondary and further education and the interview respondents were employed in non-education contexts. The findings suggest that the initial reforms, which required higher levels of accountability through the introduction of key performance indicators, appear to be fully embedded within the education manager’s role and there is a high degree of convergence in relation to the expectation of managers at this level in all the settings. The findings also highlighted a fundamental difference in relation to how middle managers were expected to carry out their duties, the autonomy they had to do so and the authority that was bestowed upon them.
    • Trustworthiness in the patient centred health care system

      Liu, Enjie; Feng, Xiaohua; University of Bedfordshire (Springer Verlag, 2014-06-27)
      The trend of the future health care system is patient centred, and patients' involvement is a key to success. ICT will play an important role in enabling and helping patients or citizens to manage and communicate on the individual's health related issues. This includes private and confidential information. Trustworthiness is therefore one of the most vital aspects in such systems. This paper first presents the prototype structure of the health care system, and then discusses questions regarding the trustworthiness of the system. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.
    • Truth Project thematic report: child sexual abuse in custodial institutions

      Darling, Andrea; Mooney, Beth; King, Sophia; Hurcombe, Rachel; Soares, Claire; Ablett, Grace; Brähler, Verena; IICSA Research Team (Independent Inquiry Child Sexual Abuse, 2020-04-30)
      The Truth Project is a core part of the Inquiry, alongside public hearings and research. It was set up to hear and learn from the experiences of victims and survivors of child sexual abuse in England and Wales. It offers victims and survivors an opportunity to share experiences of child sexual abuse. By describing their experiences, Truth Project participants make an important contribution to the work of the Inquiry. With the consent of participants, the Inquiry uses Truth Project information in a variety of ways, including for ongoing research and data analysis carried out by the Inquiry’s Research Team. This is the third research publication in a series of thematic reports examining the experiences of victims and survivors of child sexual abuse as shared with the Truth Project. It details the research findings in relation to experiences of abuse in custodial institutions.
    • Truth Project thematic report: child sexual abuse in the context of children’s homes and residential care

      Soares, Claire; Ablett, Grace; Mooney, Beth; King, Sophia; IICSA Research Team (Independent Inquiry Child Sexual Abuse, 2019-11-30)
      The Truth Project is a core part of the Inquiry alongside Public Hearings and Research. It was set up to hear and learn from the experiences of victims and survivors of child sexual abuse in England and Wales. It offers victims and survivors an opportunity to share experiences of child sexual abuse. By doing so, Truth Project participants make an important contribution to the work of the Inquiry. With the consent of participants, the Inquiry uses Truth Project information in a variety of ways, including for ongoing research and data analysis carried out by the Inquiry’s Research Team. This is the second research publication in a series of thematic reports examining what victims and survivors have shared with the Truth Project about their experiences of child sexual abuse and the institutional context in which it occurred. It details the research findings in relation to experiences of child sexual abuse that occurred in the context of children’s homes and residential care.
    • Truth Project thematic report: child sexual abuse in the context of religious institutions

      Hurcombe, Rachel; Darling, Andrea; Mooney, Beth; Ablett, Grace; Soares, Claire; King, Sophia; Brähler, Verena; IICSA Research Team (Independent Inquiry Child Sexual Abuse, 2019-05-31)
      This is the first publication in a series of thematic reports examining what victims and survivors have shared with the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse (‘the Inquiry’) as part of the Truth Project about their experiences of child sexual abuse and the institutional context in which it occurred. It details the research findings in relation to experiences of sexual abuse that occurred in ‘religious contexts’, based on the location or perpetrator of the abuse. This includes both sexual abuse that has taken place in a religious institution and sexual abuse that has taken place in a different setting but where the perpetrator was a member of the clergy or other staff affiliated with a religious institution (see section 1.2 for a more detailed discussion of our inclusion and exclusion criteria). The accounts in this report are from victims and survivors who came to the Truth Project between June 2016 and November 2018. The majority of participants reported sexual abuse by individuals from Anglican and Catholic Churches in England and Wales. However, such abuse within other Christian denominations and other religions – including the Jehovah’s Witnesses, Islam and Judaism – was also reported and is included in the analysis. The analysis was undertaken by members of the Inquiry’s Research Team between November 2018 and May 2019.
    • TTIP negotiations in the shadow of human rights and democratic values

      Stanford, Ben; Yiannaros, Andreas C.; Nyombi, Chrispas (Sweet and Maxwell, 2016-09-01)
      In early 2013, based on the recommendations of the EU–US, High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth, the presidents of the European Council, the European Commission (the Commission) and the US announced the initiation of negotiations on a major free trade agreement between the two blocs, termed the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). The TTIP initiative promises significant economic development for the Transatlantic Free Trade Area (TFTA) and provision for investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS), which is mainly associated with international arbitration under the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). Respondents to a public consultation on TTIP, representing a wide spectrum of EU civil society organisations, expressed concern over ISDS’s impact on EU Member States’ right to regulate in the public’s interest, if investors are armed with the right to launch international proceedings to challenge national policy. Similar concerns were expressed over the secretive nature of the negotiations, with many critics pointing to democratic values and human rights as the bedrock of a civilised society. These concerns cast a shadow of uncertainty over the intended and unintended consequences of TTIP and, in particular, its encroachment on democratic values. In response to the rejection of ISDS, the Commission released proposals for an international investment court in August 2015. We argue that these reforms are merely cosmetic and are unlikely to alleviate some of the concerns raised over ISDS and, in particular, its intrusion on national public policy. The aim of this article is threefold. First and foremost, it examines the nature of the TTIP proposals with particular emphasis on the international investment court. The aim is to highlight how the secretive negotiations have undermined the most basic notions of democracy such as transparency and sovereignty. Secondly, it highlights areas where the fundamental principles of human rights have been undermined by the TTIP negotiations. Thirdly, the proposal for an international investment court is critiqued, especially on the inclusion of broad fair and equitable treatment (FET) standards that are likely to promote the same unfettered rights as those found under ISDS. Ultimately, a circumspect conclusion that ties together the various strands of argument through the paper is reached.
    • Tunable electrochemical oscillation and regular 3D nanopore arrays of InP

      Chai, Xiangyu; Weng, Zhankun; Xu, Liping; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire (Electrochemical Society Inc., 2015-06-16)
      Tunable potential oscillations are obtained by electrochemical etching of n-InP (100) in the 3MNaCl solution using the chronoptentiometry with current ramp. The regular 3D nanopore arrays are formed with the change of the current density from 320 to 260 mA · cm-2 at the scan rate 0.72 - 0.80 mA · cm-2 · s-1. The results showed that the current density ranges and scan rate have the effect on the E-t curves and the pore's morphology. The scan rate can regulate not only on the charge consumed per period but also on the amplitude of potential oscillation, and shown that the charge per period and the amplitude can be tuned when proper electrochemical parameters are selected. Furthermore, the pore's morphology will change from the regular structure to irregular with the increasing of the scan rate. In addition, the relation has also been discussed between the E-t curves and the pore's morphology.
    • Tunable phantoms and their verification

      Zhang, Qing; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Yang, Xiaodong (American Scientific Publishers, 2020-01-01)
      Digital phantoms are very important for body area networks and other biomedical applications. However, it is important to note that most existing phantoms are static, including 3D scanned and voxel models. Recent research has revealed that tunable phantoms are still very necessary for body area networks since various postures should be considered. In this paper, parameterized digital phantoms are generated from 2D images. The train of thought and results presented in the paper are worth reference for phantom researchers.
    • Tuning of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) via Customer Experience Management (CEM) using sentiment analysis on aspects level

      AL-Rubaiee, Hamed Saad; Alomar, Khalid; Qiu, Renxi; Li, Dayou; University of Bedfordshire; King Abdulaziz University (Science and Information Organization, 2018-12-31)
      This study proposes a framework that combines a supervised machine learning and a semantic orientation approach to tune Customer Relationship Management (CRM) via Customer Experience Management (CEM). The framework extracts data from social media first and then integrates CRM and CEM by tuning and optimising CRM to reflect the needs and expectations of users on social media. In other words, in order to reduce the gap between the users' predicted opinions in CRM and their opinions on social media, the existing data from CEM will be applied to determine the similar behavioural patterns of customers towards similar outcomes within CRM. CRM data and extracted data from social media will be consolidated by the unsupervised data mining method (association). The framework will lead to a quantitative approach to uncover relationships between the extracted data from social media and the CRM data. The results show that changing some aspects of the e-learning criteria that were required by students in their social media posts can help to enhance the classification accuracy in the learning management system (LMS) data and to understand more students' studying statuses. Furthermore, the results show matching between students' opinions in CRM and CEM, especially in the negative and neutral classes.
    • Tunisia : mass tourism in crisis?

      Jeffrey, Heather; Bleasdale, Sue; University of Bedfordshire; Middlesex University (CABI, 2017-07-01)
      Successive governments in post-colonial Tunisia have sought to develop mass tourism as an avenue for social and economic development. Political instability and increasing media coverage have more recently led to a dramatic reduction in foreign tourist arrivals. Tunisia provides insights into the intersections of modernity, mass tourism, authoritarianism and terrorism, and in a world marred by terrorist attacks it becomes increasingly important to analyse the specific contexts from which these emerge. This chapter aims to address some of these issues by evaluating mass tourism development in Tunisia, highlighting the social and economic advances Tunisia has achieved, before analysing the situation since the Jasmine revolution of 2011. In order to fully analyse mass tourism in Tunisia, we draw on our own experience, which includes over 30 years of research in Tunisia, and fieldwork carried out shortly after the March 2015 Bardo Museum attack in the capital city Tunis. Finally, the chapter looks towards the future of mass tourism in Tunisia, arguing that while mass tourism has delivered positive advances, if it is to continue to do so the industry must be diversified and adapted to meet new needs.
    • Turning points in a qualitatively different social space: young adults’ reflections of alternative provision

      Malcolm, Andrew David; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2019-02-23)
      There is a wealth of evidence suggesting that after being marginalised and excluded from school young people who attend Alternative Provision settings report positive relationships and experiences of learning. There is however very little research which explores the longer term outcomes of attending this sort of provision. Retrospective life history interviews were undertaken with 18 young adults in their early to mid-20s who had attended Alternative Provision in England. Interviews focused on schooling, exclusion, attending Alternative Provision and the impact of this on what they had done since leaving school up to their present situation. Analysis showed that the experience of attending Alternative Provision frequently constituted a turning point in a young person’s life story. This was due to the qualitatively different kind of social space experienced there.