Now showing items 1-20 of 2911

    • From the hydrosocial to the hydrocitizen: water, place and subjectivity within emergent urban wetlands

      Gearey, Mary; Ravenscroft, Neil; Church, Andrew; University of Brighton; Royal Agricultural University (SAGE Publications, 2019-03-11)
      This paper argues that the expansion of corporate social responsibility initiatives within the English water sector, and in particular the opening up of privately owned public spaces (POPS) in urban settings, have generated spatially fixed forms of human-environment relationships that we have termed ‘hydrocitizenships’. Utilising empirical fieldwork undertaken within an emergent wetland POPS, we suggest that these novel modes of citizen agency are primarily enacted through the performativity of volunteering, in multiple civic roles such as landscapers, citizen scientists, stewards and storytelling guides. Members of the local community thus effectively curate new civic subjectivities for themselves in response to the site and its organisation, by producing for themselves new modes of ‘hydrocitizenship’. These hybrid intertwined forms of practice prompt us to ask questions about the extent to which these apparently new forms of environmental citizenship are self-directed, or manipulated. As access, control over, and use of, water resources are a synecdoche of structural power relationships within contemporary neoliberal economies, we can go further to suggest that these blue-green POPS are emblematic of a new iteration of hydro-social relations in which water, place and subjectivity become the collateral through which new POPS are secured. For water companies seeking to deploy corporate social responsibility there is, then, a subtle two step move to be made, by building brand loyalty and then developing new forms of resource management in which local communities accept heightened levels of responsibility for sites to which they are offered recreational access. These emergent ‘hydrocitizenships’ thus encapsulate very specific geo-spatial subjectivities and performativities which lock in access to waterscapes with closely scripted conditionalities regarding activity and behaviour.
    • Indicators for relational values of nature’s contributions to good quality of life: the IPBES approach for Europe and Central Asia

      Schröter, Matthias; Başak, Esra; Christie, Michael; Church, Andrew; Keune, Hans; Osipova, Elena; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Sievers-Glotzbach, Stefanie; van Oudenhoven, Alexander P. E.; Balvanera, Patricia; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2020-01-10)
      Relational values are values of desirable relationships between people and nature and among people (through nature). We report on the approach to capture relational values of nature's contributions to people in the regional assessment for Europe and Central Asia of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). We present a framework considering indicators along four relational value dimensions about people's relationships with nature: security and sovereignty; health; equity and justice; and heritage, social identity and stewardship. The framework has been operationalized for three nature's contributions to people (NCP): regulation of freshwater quality and quantity, food and feed, and physical and psychological experiences derived from nature. We identify ways to empirically assess relational values of nature's contributions to people at regional and continental scales with social-ecological indicators and proxies, ranging from biophysical indicators to indicators that intersect socio-economic with biophysical data. We conclude that many of the identified indicators can be considered as useful proxies of relational values in a quantitative way. The analysis shows that relational values are essential to consider at the science-policy interface as they are an important set of values that people hold about nature and that go beyond instrumental relations.
    • English wetlands: spaces of nature, culture, imagination

      Gearey, Mary; Church, Andrew; Ravenscroft, Neil (Palgrave Pivot, 2020-06-11)
      The origins of this book are drawn from a research project entitled WetlandLIFE: Taking the Bite Out of Wetlands, which ran from July 2016 to July January 2020, funded by the Valuing Nature Programme, supported by a number of UK Research Councils. The research team are from a consortium of UK universities alongside public and third-sector organisations and independent creative practitioners. The overall ambition of the project has been to improve wetland management by delivering national ecological guidance for managing insect populations, particularly mosquitoes, as part of healthy wetland environments, and to encourage the recreational use of wetlands to support the health and wellbeing of local populations. To do this, 12 English wetlands were selected for an ecological survey of mosquito species on each site. We then selected three of these case study sites, in Bedfordshire, Somerset and the Humber Valley, to research human use, experience, value and perception of local wetlands. This book draws on all elements of the project and other influences taken from our combined research portfolios concerned with water and the environment.Thinking widely about the ways in which humans have shaped landscapes across time, and conversely the ways in which landscapes have sculpted human lives and cultures, this book seeks to celebrate the beauty, and complexities, of English wetlands from a contemporary purview. Attention is given to the ways in which these waterscapes have been much maligned, particularly in historical cultural representations, and how these waterscapes are increasingly understood as essential components for enabling transitions towards sustainable futures. Whilst the empirical fieldwork data which appears in all six chapters of the book is taken from the WetlandLIFE project work, the book also uses a range of materials drawn from other perspectives, including palaeoenvironmental archaeology; landscape architecture and environmental planning; human geography; ecosystem services; eco-criticism; literary, cultural and critical theory; environmental history; and natural resources management. As a result the book will appeal to a diverse audience. For those readers who feel an affinity with English wetlands and are keen to discover more about these spaces, the case study sites afford detail and nuance which are in turn particular to these places and local communities, and also emblematic of wider changes and trends across these waterscapes at a generic level.In order to provide clarity of focus, the book only reflects upon English wetlands, though readers are signposted to the work of other writers, both practitioners and theorists, throughout the book, for further reading and to enable considerations of other ways of { extquoteleft}knowing{ extquoteright} wetlands that are outside the remits of this work. We hope that by the end of the book, our readers will feel sufficiently engaged and curious to visit the case study sites that we have so grown to admire and to feel encouraged to explore other wetlands, armed with novel insights which will hopefully enable them to view these landscapes in an entirely new way. So don your welly boots and get out into the great outdoors; you won{ extquoteright}t regret it.
    • Understanding the diversity of values of “Nature's contributions to people”: insights from the IPBES Assessment of Europe and Central Asia

      Christie, Mike; Martin-Lopez, Berta; Church, Andrew; Siwicka, Ewa; Szymonczyk, Pawel; Sauterel, Jasmin Mena (Springer, 2019-07-17)
      Assessments of the value of nature (e.g., TEEB. The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: ecological and economic foundations, London, 2010) have tended to focus on the instrumental values of ecosystem services. However, recent academic and policy debate have highlighted a wider range of values (e.g., relational and intrinsic values), valuation methods (e.g., socio-cultural methods), and worldviews [e.g., indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) systems]. To account for these new perspectives, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) has developed the concept of ‘Nature’s contributions to people’ (NCP), which aims to be a more inclusive approach to understanding and accounting for the diversity of values held by different stakeholders. In this paper, we aim to critically appraise the merits of the IPBES conceptual framework by reviewing of the findings the IPBES Europe and Central Asia (ECA) assessment. Our objectives are: (1) To review and assess the instrumental and relational values of NCP in Europe and Central Asia? (2) To consider what additional insights into the value of NCP are gained through the inclusion of socio-cultural valuations and ILK? Our analysis demonstrates that the ECA assessment captures a wide range of instrumental and relational values of NCP; however, we acknowledge variation in the availability of this value evidence. We also highlight new insights that can be uncovered through the adoptions of socio-cultural valuation methods and analysis of ILK knowledge. We conclude that the NCP paradigm, with its focus on instrumental and relational values, treats values more holistically than previous assessments such as TEEB (2010). For example, by giving a ‘voice’ to ILK holders, we demonstrated new types of NCP such as carrion removal, along with evidence of relational values including sense of place, identity, symbolic values and sacredness. While the ECA assessments may be defined as an example of a ‘Multiple evidence base’ approach to valuation of ecosystem assessments, the ECA assessment fails to demonstrate how to incorporate this wider range of values in decision-making processes.
    • Layered and linking research partnerships: learning from YOUR World Research in Ethiopia and Nepal

      Johnson, Vicky; Admassu, Anannia; Church, Andrew; Healey, Jill; Mathema, Sujeeta (Institute of Development Studies, 2019-05-01)
      This article draws on learning from the YOUR World Research project in Ethiopia and Nepal, which uses the socioecological Change‑scape framework to understand how participants in research need to be understood within a landscape of changing institutional, environmental, and political contexts. The article explores whether trustful relationships, ownership, and commitment can bring about more effective societal change through research. Through group discussion and reflective perspectives, the authors draw out possible indicators of successful partnership from the different contexts in which YOUR World Research was working. These include histories of interpersonal relationships; shared vision and motivations; building ownership; shared platforms and spaces for dialogue; and flexibility to respond to shocks and changes in context. The article suggests that whilst being realistic about the power and politics of partnership, there are mechanisms in partnership models that can help support high-quality rigorous research whilst creating impact at local, national, and international levels.
    • Beyond transgression: mountain biking, young people and managing green spaces

      King, Katherine; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 2019-01-24)
      The importance of regular participation in physical activity in youth has seen attention turn to the role of lifestyle sports. Existing research on lifestyle sports lacks consideration of young people’s use of green spaces and the approaches of managers to conflicts in these spaces. Young people’s experiences of leisure are closely tied to those who oversee their use of leisure spaces and this paper is a rare example of research that draws upon qualitative methods from 40 mountain biking participants and 9 managers to explore both perspectives. Findings reveal young people seek opportunities for autonomy in green spaces through mountain biking but contest normative management practices. Managers recognized the benefits of engaging young people in mountain biking and discussed experimenting with various strategies to accommodate their practices. The paper therefore discusses the importance of moving beyond constructions of young people’s participation in lifestyle sports as transgressive and troublesome.
    • Nance-Horan Syndrome-like 1 protein negatively regulates Scar/WAVE-Arp2/3 activity and inhibits lamellipodia stability and cell migration

      Law, Ah-Lai; Jalal, Shamsinar; Pallett, Tommy; Mosis, Fuad; Guni, Ahmad; Brayford, Simon; Yolland, Lawrence; Marcotti, Stefania; Levitt, James A.; Poland, Simon P.; et al. (Nature Research, 2021-09-28)
      Cell migration is important for development and its aberrant regulation contributes to many diseases. The Scar/WAVE complex is essential for Arp2/3 mediated lamellipodia formation during mesenchymal cell migration and several coinciding signals activate it. However, so far, no direct negative regulators are known. Here we identify Nance-Horan Syndrome-like 1 protein (NHSL1) as a direct binding partner of the Scar/WAVE complex, which co-localise at protruding lamellipodia. This interaction is mediated by the Abi SH3 domain and two binding sites in NHSL1. Furthermore, active Rac binds to NHSL1 at two regions that mediate leading edge targeting of NHSL1. Surprisingly, NHSL1 inhibits cell migration through its interaction with the Scar/WAVE complex. Mechanistically, NHSL1 may reduce cell migration efficiency by impeding Arp2/3 activity, as measured in cells using a Arp2/3 FRET-FLIM biosensor, resulting in reduced F-actin density of lamellipodia, and consequently impairing the stability of lamellipodia protrusions.
    • Deep neural-network prediction for study of informational efficiency

      Sulaiman, Rejwan Bin; Schetinin, Vitaly; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2021-08-03)
      In this paper, we attempt to verify a hypothesis of informational efficiency of financial markets, known as “random walk” introduced by Fama. Such hypotheses could be considered in relation to financial crises. In our study the hypothesis is tested on data taken from Warsaw Stock Exchange in 2007–2009 years. The hypothesis is tested by predictive modelling based on Machine Learning (ML). We compare conventional ML techniques and the proposed “deep” neural-network structures grown by Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH). In our experiments a GMDH-type neural-network model has outperformed the conventional ML techniques, which is important for achieving the reliable results of predictive modelling and testing the hypothesis. GMDH-type modelling does not require the knowledge of network structure, as a desired network of near-optimal connectivity is learnt from the data. The experimental results compared in terms of prediction error show that the GMDH-type prediction model has a significantly smaller error than the conventional autoregressive and neural-network models.
    • Economic development and construction safety research: a bibliometrics approach

      Luo, Fansong; Li, Rita Yi Man; Crabbe, M. James C.; Pu, Ruihui; Hong Kong Shue Yan University; Oxford University; University of Bedfordshire; Shanxi University; Srinakharinwirot University (Elsevier, 2021-10-14)
      The construction industry contributes significantly to economic development worldwide, yet it is one of the most hazardous industries where numerous accidents and fatalities happen every year. Little research to date has shed light on the impact of economic development on construction safety research. In this paper, we conduct an analysis of construction safety articles published in the 21st century via a bibliometrics approach. We have analysed: (1) construction safety in developed and developing countries; (2) the major organisations that have conducted construction safety research; (3) authors and territories of the research and (4) topics in construction safety and future research directions. The largest number of published construction safety documents were published by scholars from the US and China; the total number of published articles by these two countries was 1,125, at 56% of the 2000 articles that were published. Both countries showed high levels of research collaboration. While our results suggest that economic development may drive academic construction safety research, there has been an increase in construction safety research conducted by developing countries in recent years, probably due to an improvement in their economic development. While authors’ keywords evidenced the popularity of research on safety management and climate, the network analysis on all keywords, i.e. keywords given by Web of Science and authors, suggest that construction safety research focused on three areas: construction safety management, the relationship between people and construction safety, and the protection and health of workers’ impact on construction safety. We found that there is a new interdisciplinary research trend where construction safety combines with digital technologies, with the largest number involving deep learning. Other trends focus on machine learning, Building Information Modelling, machine learning and visualisation.
    • Memories, mementos, and memorialization of young unaccompanied Afghans navigating within Europe

      Lønning, Moa Nyamwathi; Kohli, Ravi K.S.; (Oxford University Press, 2021-09-28)
      This article considers memories, mementos, and memorialization in stories by unaccompanied young people and their journeys within Europe. It looks at their ‘navigation’ of remembering and forgetting and how this intertwines with movement and stillness. It is based on a study about Afghan males aged 15–24 years in Norway and Greece. Participants differed in terms of their backgrounds, migration projects, and their legal status. In their various circumstances, their narratives point to how memories unfold, are shared, must be negotiated, and sometimes, forgotten as they navigate towards a sense of safety and a sustainable future. They also point to how mementos may take different forms while on the move, as traces along the migration trail that have the potential to become part of the memories of others who come across them. Finally, their narratives point to practices of memorialization, and how they too are intimately connected to remembering and forgetting
    • Solidarity with Soufra: dividuality and joint action with Palestinian women refugees

      Schwabenland, Christina; Hirst, Alison; University of Bedfordshire; Anglia Ruskin University (Sage, 2021-10-08)
      Based on an exploratory study of Soufra, a women’s catering social enterprise in the Bourj al Barajneh Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, we analyse how solidarity across difference can be organized. We conceptualize ‘difference’ not in terms of ‘whole’ individuals, but in terms of dividuals, the multiple roles and social positions that individuals occupy; this enables similarities between individuals of different ethnicities, nationalities and statuses to become apparent. We find that, despite their extreme and protracted marginalization, Soufra does not seek to organize solidarity relationships with co-resisters joining their struggle against oppressors. Rather, they initiate exchange relationships with different others via carefully managed impressions of similar dividualities (e.g. professional cooks and businesswomen) and different dividualities (e.g. having refugee status and lacking any citizenship). These encounters provide opportunities for solidarity relationships to be created and underlying cultural predispositions to be transformed. Whether these opportunities are taken up or rejected is dependent, at least to some extent, on the willingness of participants to allow such transformations to occur.
    • Community pharmacists' views on providing a reproductive health service to women receiving opioid substitution treatment: a qualitative study using the TDF and COM-B

      Alhusein, Nour; Scott, Jenny; Neale, Jo; Chater, Angel M.; Family, Hannah; University of Bristol; University of Bath; King's College London; University of New South Wales; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2021-09-21)
      Background The absence of menstruation is common in women who use drugs. This can give a belief that conception is unlikely. When stabilised on Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST), fertility often returns, initially without realisation as ovulation precedes menstruation. This leaves women vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs) are frequently in contact with this patient group through the Supervised Consumption of OST service. This provides a timely opportunity to provide reproductive health (RH) advice. The aim of this study was to investigate pharmacists' views on providing a RH service to women receiving OST. Methods Twenty semi-structured interviews based on the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation to Behaviour (COM-B) model and the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) were conducted between 2016 and 2017. Data analysis involved deductive coding using the TDF domains. The TDF domains were mapped onto the elements of the COM-B and used in the second step to create the framework and chart the data. The third step involved re-reading and clustering the codes, and inductive themes were generated to explain the data in depth. Results Nine of the 14 TDF domains, mapped into five elements of the COM-B, were identified. Five inductive themes were generated: 1) The pharmacists' experience and knowledge of reproductive health (RH) needs of women receiving OST, 2) The pharmacists' approach to providing advice, 3) The pharmacists' perception of the relationship with women receiving OST, 4) Social influences, and 5) Environmental factors. Community pharmacists feared causing offense to women receiving OST and described requiring cues as to when the service was needed. Pharmacists' highlighted a power imbalance in the relationship with women receiving OST. This could influence how receptive this patient group would be to pharmacy RH interventions. Conclusions CPs' concerns of providing RH service could hinder a proactive service provision. Supporting good rapport and providing a structured consultation would increase the accessibility of such a service.
    • Template for Rapid Iterative Consensus of Experts (TRICE)

      Chater, Angel M.; Shorter, Gillian; Swanson, Vivien; Kamal, Atiya; Epton, Tracy; Arden, Madelynne A.; Hart, Jo; Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Drury, John; Whittaker, Ellie; et al. (MDPI, 2021-09-29)
      Background: Public health emergencies require rapid responses from experts. Differing viewpoints are common in science, however, “mixed messaging” of varied perspectives can undermine credibility of experts; reduce trust in guidance; and act as a barrier to changing public health behaviours. Collation of a unified voice for effective knowledge creation and translation can be challenging. This work aimed to create a method for rapid psychologically-informed expert guidance during the COVID-19 response. Method: TRICE (Template for Rapid Iterative Consensus of Experts) brings structure, peer-review and consensus to the rapid generation of expert advice. It was developed and trialled with 15 core members of the British Psychological Society COVID-19 Behavioural Science and Disease Prevention Taskforce. Results: Using TRICE; we have produced 18 peer-reviewed COVID-19 guidance documents; based on rapid systematic reviews; co-created by experts in behavioural science and public health; taking 4–156 days to produce; with approximately 18 experts and a median of 7 drafts per output. We provide worked-examples and key considerations; including a shared ethos and theoretical/methodological framework; in this case; the Behaviour Change Wheel and COM-B. Conclusion: TRICE extends existing consensus methodologies and has supported public health collaboration; co-creation of guidance and translation of behavioural science to practice through explicit processes in generating expert advice for public health emergencies.
    • The use of objects to enhance online social research interviews

      Zakher, Maged Sobhy Mokhtar; Wassif, Hoda (University of Bristol: Policy Press, 2021-09-28)
      The ongoing COVID-19 health emergency, and the restrictions that it has placed on research, led many researchers to the re-evaluation of how social research interviews need to go online and how these can be enhanced. The online space presents a platform that brings participants and researchers together in an environment owned by both regardless of who hosts the online session. Online methods are likely to continue through emergencies and crises in general and beyond, and this calls for innovative ways to enhance online research interviews. This chapter discusses a study of a series of online interviews where interviewees were invited to bring an object of personal value with the aim to facilitate a discussion on ‘happiness in lockdown.’ The selected topic served as a vehicle to explore this approach to online interviews while contextualising it in a crisis situation. It also helped to anchor the discussion around a positive theme in the middle of a global crisis. The study aimed at exploring the dynamics observed and the type of thematic materials gathered in this research context. The focus is to investigate the research technique and explore the benefits and challenges of using objects in social research interviews online. As participants select objects related to the research, they are given some control to steer the discussion. Hennigar (1997) discussed the shift in thinking when artefacts are placed at the center of the conversation, and the participant’s own values, beliefs and views about the world could be explored in more depth resulting in what Rubin and Rubin (2012: 95) call an ‘extended conversation.’ The purpose of such a conversation is to explore in depth some themes of relevance to the interviewee through their choice of objects. Using Thematic Analysis (Braun and Clarke, 2006), we explored the richness, depth and genuineness of the materials gathered in object-based online research interviews. The chapter details the research process, discussing the benefits and challenges of using objects as enhancing tools in social research interviews conducted online. It considers how participants chose their items, how the tool compares with other enhancing tools, and some methodological implications. The chapter concludes with our reflection as interviewers offering advice to researchers who may choose to use this enhancing technique in their online interviews.
    • Perception of studying dental law and ethics among postgraduate dental students in the UK

      Wassif, Hoda; ; University of Bedfordshire (Nature Publishing Group, 2015-08-14)
      Law and ethics is an integral part of medical and dental professional practice. The subject is touched upon in the undergraduate curriculum. Historically, dentists interested in postgraduate study in this subject have accessed courses on medical law and ethics. While there are areas of shared interest (for example, consent, confidentiality) there are differences in emphasis and content (for example, end of life care, organ transplants, etc) which are not relevant to dentistry. A new postgraduate certificate (PgCert) course was approved by the University of Bedfordshire designed specifically for dental practitioners, making it the only university accredited course in the UK that is specific to dental staff. Students' perception of the subject of dental law and ethics at a postgraduate level was not known. The first PgCert student cohort was assessed at the start and the end of the course using two questionnaires. Sixteen students, all qualified dental practitioners working in the UK, took part. The perception toward the subject of dental law and ethics was in-line with the current guideline and regulations governing the dental profession. Perception of dental law was clearer at the end of the course compared to the beginning while dental ethics remained a challenging subject.
    • Editorial: How to develop a quality research article and avoid a journal desk rejection

      Dwivedi, Yogesh Kumar; Hughes, Laurie; Cheung, Christy M.K.; Conboy, Kieran; Duan, Yanqing; Dubey, Rameshwar; Janssen, Marijn; Jones, Paul; Sigala, Marianna; Viglia, Giampaolo; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-09-21)
      The desk rejection of submitted articles can be a hugely frustrating and demotivating process from the perspective of the researcher, but equally, a time-consuming and vital step in the process for the Editor, tasked with selecting appropriate articles that meet the required criteria for further review and scrutiny. The feedback from journal Editors within this editorial, highlights the significant gaps in understanding from many academics of the journal assessment process and acceptance criteria for progression to the review stage. This editorial offers a valuable “lived-in” perspective on the desk rejection process through the lens of the Editor, via the differing views of nine leading journal Editors. Each Editor articulates their own perspectives on the many reasons for desk rejection, offering key insight to researchers on how to align their submissions to the specific journal requirements and required quality criteria, whilst demonstrating relevance and contribution to theory and practice. This editorial develops a succinct summary of the key findings from the differing Editor perspectives, offering a timely contribution of significant value and benefit to academics and industry researchers alike.
    • Purification and identification of novel xanthine oxidase inhibitory peptides derived from round scad (Decapterus maruadsi) protein hydrolysates

      Hu, Xiao; Zhou, Ya; Zhou, Shaobo; Chen, Shengjun; Wu, Yanyan; Li, Laihao; Yang, Xianqing; Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences; Jiangsu Ocean University; Shanghai Ocean University; et al. (MDPI, 2021-09-24)
      The objective of the present study was to investigate the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory effects of peptides purified and identified from round scad (Decapterus maruadsi) hydrolysates (RSHs). In this study, RSHs were obtained by using three proteases (neutrase, protamex and alcalase). Among them, the RSHs of 6-h hydrolysis by neutrase displayed the strongest XO inhibitory activity and had an abundance of small peptides (<500 Da). Four novel peptides were purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and identified by nano-high-performance liquid chromatography mass/mass spectrometry. Their amino acid sequences were KGFP (447.53 Da), FPSV (448.51 Da), FPFP (506.59 Da) and WPDGR (629.66 Da), respectively. Then the peptides were synthesized to evaluate their XO inhibitory activity. The results indicated that the peptides of both FPSV (5 mM) and FPFP (5 mM) exhibited higher XO inhibitory activity (22.61 +- 1.81% and 20.09 +- 2.41% respectively). Fluorescence spectra assay demonstrated that the fluorescence quenching mechanism of XO by these inhibitors (FPSV and FPFP) was a static quenching procedure. The study of inhibition kinetics suggested that the inhibition of both FPSV and FPFP was reversible, and the type of their inhibition was a mixed one. Molecular docking revealed the importance of π-π stacking between Phe residue (contained in peptides) and Phe914 (contained in the XO) in the XO inhibitory activity of the peptides.
    • Guest editorial: Innovation in children’s social care: from conceptualisation to improved outcomes?

      Munro, Emily; Skouteris, Helen; Newlands, Fiona; Walker, Steve; University of Bedfordshire; Monash University; Children’s Services, Leeds City Council (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2021-09-14)
    • ABL1 and Cofilin1 promote T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell migration

      Luo, Jixian; Zheng, Huiguang; Wang, Sen; Li, Dingyun; Ma, Wenli; Wang, Lan; Crabbe, M. James C. (Oxford University Press, 2021-09-11)
      The fusion gene of ABL1 is closely related to tumor proliferation, invasion, and migration. It has been reported recently that ABL1 itself is required for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell migration induced by CXCL12. Further experiments revealed that ABL1 inhibitor Nilotinib inhibited leukemia cell migration induced by CXCL12, indicating the possible application of Nilotinib in T-ALL leukemia treatment. However, the interacting proteins of ABL1 and the specific mechanisms of their involvement in this process need further investigation. In the present study, ABL1 interacting proteins were characterized and their roles in the process of leukemia cell migration induced by CXCL12 were investigated. Co-immunoprecipitation in combination with mass spectrometry analysis identified 333 proteins that interact with ABL1, including Cofilin1. Gene ontology analysis revealed that many of them were enriched in the intracellular organelle or cytoplasm, including nucleic acid binding components, transfectors, or co-transfectors. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed that the top three enriched pathways were translation, glycan biosynthesis, and metabolism, together with human diseases. ABL1 and Cofilin1 were in the same complex. Cofilin1 binds the SH3 domain of ABL1 directly; however, ABL1 is not required for the phosphorylation of Cofilin1. Molecular docking analysis shows that ABL1 interacts with Cofilin1 mainly through hydrogen bonds and ionic interaction between amino acid residues. The mobility of leukemic cells was significantly decreased by Cofilin1 siRNA. These results demonstrate that Cofilin1 is a novel ABL1 binding partner. Furthermore, Cofilin1 participates in the migration of leukemia cells induced by CXCL12. These data indicate that ABL1 and Cofilin1 are possible targets for T-ALL treatment.
    • Exercise-induced salivary hormone responses to high-intensity, self-paced running

      Leal, Diogo Luis Campos Vaz; Taylor, Lee; Hough, John (Human Kinetics, 2021-01-20)
      Physical overexertion can lead to detrimental overreaching states without sufficient recovery, which may be identifiable by blunted exercise-induced cortisol and testosterone responses. A running test (RPETP) elicits reproducible plasma cortisol and testosterone elevations (in a healthy state) and may detect blunted hormonal responses in overreached athletes. This current study determined the salivary cortisol and testosterone responses reproducibility to the RPETP, to provide greater practical validity using saliva compared with the previously utilized blood sampling. Second, the relationship between the salivary and plasma responses was assessed. A total of 23 active, healthy males completed the RPETP on 3 occasions. Saliva (N = 23) and plasma (N = 13) were collected preexercise, postexercise, and 30 minutes postexercise. Salivary cortisol did not elevate in any RPETP trial, and reduced concentrations occurred 30 minutes postexercise (P = .029, η2 = .287); trial differences were observed (P < .001, η2 = .463). The RPETP elevated (P < .001, η2 = .593) salivary testosterone with no effect of trial (P = .789, η2 = .022). Intraindividual variability was 25% in cortisol and 17% in testosterone. "Fair" intraclass coefficients of .46 (cortisol) and .40 (testosterone) were found. Salivary and plasma cortisol positively correlated (R = .581, P = .037) yet did not for testosterone (R = .345, P = .248). The reproducibility of salivary testosterone response to the RPETP is evident and supports its use as a potential tool, subject to further confirmatory work, to detect hormonal dysfunction during overreaching. Salivary cortisol responds inconsistently in a somewhat individualized manner to the RPETP.