Now showing items 21-40 of 3042

    • Under pressure: representations of student suicide in higher education

      Calver, Kay; Michael-Fox, Bethan (Mortality, 2021-10-06)
      This article examines what the representation of university student suicide in three British television documentaries reveals about media constructions of suicide and the pressures young people experience at university. Within these documentaries, student suicide is positioned as a risk endemic in a high pressure, high-cost performance culture. Young students are depicted as stressed and ‘on the edge’, either as a consequence of the academic pressure of university or the coalescence of academic, financial and social pressures. Debates about the responsibility of individuals and the accountability of institutions come to the fore as depictions of students as fully fledged and responsible adults jostle with the notion of students as ‘adults in transition’, at risk and in need of institutions to actively monitor and intervene in their lives. The documentaries offer insight into shifting media constructions of the student from ‘fun loving’ and ‘carefree’ to ‘under pressure’ and ‘at risk’. Within them, student suicide is positioned not only as a profound personal loss, but as an economic loss to a society neglecting its young people.
    • Use of innovative technology in oral language assessment

      Nakatsuhara, Fumiyo; Berry, Vivien; ; University of Bedfordshire; British Council (Taylor & Francis, 2021-11-16)
      Editorial
    • Left ventricular remodeling in rugby is a physiological adaptation to exercise: a pilot study conducted with high-level athletes

      Rato, Nuno Dias; Richards, Joanna C.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Maia (Springer, 2021-10-11)
      Purpose Literature examining left ventricular (LV) structural adaptations to combined strength and endurance training is inconsistent. Rugby is a sport that combines these two exercise modalities, both during training and match play. This study aimed to explore differences in LV structure between high-level rugby players and untrained controls. Body composition analysis was performed to determine the most appropriate indexing variable for LV mass (LVM) and understand if increases in LV represent either a training-related physiological adaptation or reflect the groups’ anthropometric differences. Methods A cross-sectional design compared 10 rugby players and 10 untrained age-matched, male controls. Body composition was obtained by bioelectrical impedance. M-mode echocardiographic imaging was performed on the LV from the parasternal long axis view. Results Significantly greater end-diastolic interventricular septum, LV internal diameter, posterior wall thickness, LVM and LVM/fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.05) were found in rugby players compared to age-matched controls. Moreover, Pearson’s correlation tests revealed FFM to be the body composition variable with the strongest correlation to LVM (r = 0.775, p < 0.001). Conclusion The differences in LV structure between groups suggest that the combined endurance and strength training that rugby athletes are subjected to, induce a process of concentric and eccentric enlargement of the LV structure. Furthermore, the association found with FFM, suggests it to be the most appropriate body scaling variable to index to LVM and, thus, should be considered when describing increases in LVM. The present research suggests that increased LVM in the athletes group represents true physiological adaptations to training.
    • An adaptive method for fish growth prediction with empirical knowledge extraction

      Li, Hui; Chen, Yingyi; Li, Wensheng; Wang, Qingbin; Duan, Yanqing; Chen, Tao; ; University of Surrey; China Agricultural University; Laizhou Mingbo Aquatic Products Co., Ltd; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-11-12)
      Fish growth prediction provides important information for optimising production in aquaculture. Fish usually exhibit different growth characteristics due to the variations in the environment, the equipment used in different fish workshops and inconsistent application by operators of empirical rules varying from one pond to another. To address this challenge, the aim of this study is to develop an adaptive fish growth prediction method in response to feeding decision. Firstly, the practical operational experience in historical feeding decisions for different fish weights is extracted to establish the feeding decision model. Then, a fish weight prediction model is established by regression analysis methods based on historical fish production data analysis. The feeding decision model is integrated as the input information of the fish weight prediction model to obtain fish weight prediction. Furthermore, an adaptive fish growth prediction strategy is proposed by continuously updating model parameters using new measurements to adapt to specific characteristics. The proposed adaptive fish growth prediction method with empirical knowledge extraction is evaluated by the collected production data of spotted knifejaw (Oplegnathus punctatus). The results show that established models can achieve a good balance between goodness-of-fit and model complexity, and the adaptive prediction method can adapt to specific fish pond’s characteristics and provide a more effective way to increase fish weight prediction accuracy. The proposed method provides an important contribution to achieving adaptive fish growth prediction in a real time from the view of aquaculture practice for spotted knifejaw.
    • Bridging the care-crime gap: reforming the youth court?

      Bateman, Tim; National Association for Youth Justice; University of Bedfordshire (National Association for Youth Justice, 2021-10-26)
    • Association of TNF-α polymorphisms (-857, -863 and -1031), TNF-α serum level and lipid profile with acne vulgaris

      Younis, Sidra; Shamim, Sana; Nisar, Kanwal; Deeba, Farah; Mehmood, Sabba; Mumtaz, Sara; Blumenberg, Miroslav; Javed, Qamar; ; National University of Medical Sciences, Pakistan; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-07-17)
      Background Acne is an inflammatory condition principally affected by genetic and dietary factors. Investigation into functional polymorphisms of TNF-α gene and their association with acne vulgaris will be helpful in exploring genetic influence on skin immune mediated inflammatory events. In the present study, we analyzed association of TNF-α gene polymorphisms, its expression levels and lipid profiles in a large cohort of acne patients and controls. Methods We used PCR-RFLP to study association of TNF-α polymorphisms at −857C/T, −863C/A and −1031 T/C sites with acne vulgaris. Lipid profiles were measured using enzymatic end-point method. The serum levels of TNF-α and apolipoprotein a were measured using ELISA. NIH, LDlink was used to investigate patterns of linkage disequilibrium across south Asian reference genome (Punjabi from Lahore Pakistan). Results We found that TNF-α −863 polymorphism is strongly associated with acne in overall population as well as in gender and severity based groups of acne patients. Polymorphisms at −863 and −1031 position were in linkage disequilibrium. Importantly, TNF-α serum level was significantly increased in acne patients with severe disease symptoms. Furthermore, levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were significantly increased, whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level was significantly decreased in acne patients. The levels of apolipoprotein a varied widely in studied populations and no significant difference was found in the analyzed groups. Conclusion In conclusion, we found that TNF-α expression increases in acne patients affected by TNF-α polymorphisms, and that the lipid profile is specifically disrupted in acne patients.
    • What influences people’s responses to public health messages for managing risks and preventing infectious diseases? a rapid systematic review of the evidence and recommendations

      Ghio, Daniela; Lawes-Wickwar, Sadie; Tang, Mei Yee; Epton, Tracy; Howlett, Neil; Jenkinson, Elizabeth; Stanescu, Sabina; Westbrook, Juliette; Kassianos, Angelos P.; Watson, Daniella; et al. (BMJ, 2021-10-05)
      Background Individual behaviour changes, such as hand hygiene and physical distancing, are required on a population scale to reduce transmission of infectious diseases such as COVID-19. However, little is known about effective methods of communicating risk reducing information, and how populations might respond. Objective To synthesise evidence relating to what: a) characterises effective public health messages for managing risk and preventing infectious disease, b) influences people’s responses to messages. Design A rapid systematic review was conducted. Protocol is published on Prospero CRD42020188704. Data sources Electronic databases were searched: Ovid Medline, Ovid PsycINFO and Healthevidence.org, and grey literature (PsyarXiv, OSF Preprints) up to May 2020. Study selection All study designs were included that: (a) evaluated public health messaging interventions targeted at adults, (b) concerned a communicable disease spread via primary route of transmission of respiratory and/or touch. Outcomes included preventative behaviours, perceptions/awareness and intentions. Non-English language papers were excluded. Synthesis Due to high heterogeneity studies were synthesised narratively focusing on determinants of intentions in the absence of measured adherence/preventative behaviours. Themes were developed independently by two researchers and discussed within team to reach consensus. Recommendations were translated from narrative synthesis to provide evidence-based methods in providing effective messaging. Results Sixty-eight eligible papers were identified. Characteristics of effective messaging include delivery by credible sources, community engagement, increasing awareness/knowledge, mapping to stage of epidemic/pandemic. To influence intent effectively, public health messages need to be acceptable, increase understanding/perceptions of health threat and perceived susceptibility. Discussion There are four key recommendations: (1) engage communities in development of messaging, (2) address uncertainty immediately and with transparency, (3) focus on unifying messages from sources, and (4) frame messages aimed at increasing understanding, social responsibility and personal control. Embedding principles of behavioural science into public health messaging is an important step towards more effective health-risk communication during epidemics/pandemics.
    • Letter to the editor: gratitude and good outcomes: rediscovering positivity and perspective in an uncertain time

      Minaev, Sergey; Schetinin, Vitaly; Kirgizov, Igor; Grigorova, Alina Nikolaevna; Akselrov, Michael; Gerasimenko, Igor (Springer, 2021-11-08)
    • Ethnic minority women’s experiences of accessing antenatal care in high income European countries: a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies

      Sharma, Esther; Tseng, Pei-Ching; Puthussery, Shuby; Li, Leah; Harden, Angela; Griffiths, Malcolm; Bamfo, Jacqueline (2021-02-22)
      Protocol for an ongoing systematic review focussed on the following review question: What are the key themes reflected in ethnic minority women’s experiences of accessing antenatal care in European countries?
    • A strategic plan for water related recreation in Wales

      Ravenscroft, Neil; Church, Andrew; Taylor, Becky; Hughes, Geoff; Young, J.; Curry, N.; University of Brighton; G & L Hughes Ltd; Plumpton College (Environment Agency, 2008-01-01)
    • Do it with pride: lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans lives and opinions

      Browne, K.; Church, Andrew; Smallbone, K.; University of Brighton in collaboration with Brighton and Hove City Council (University of Brighton, 2005-01-01)
    • Research mentoring in higher education in England

      Levesley, T.; Francis, R.; Castanheira, P.; Hobson, A.; Church, Andrew; Chrysalis Research UK Ltd (Chrysalis Research UK Ltd, 2015-10-26)
    • Assessing nature's contributions to people

      Diaz, Sandra; Pascual, Unai; Stenseke, Marie; Martin-Lopez, Berta; Watson, Robert T.; Molnár, Zsolt; Hill, Rosemary; Chan, Kai M.A.; Baste, Ivar A.; Brauman, Kate A.; et al. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2018-01-19)
      A major challenge today and into the future is to maintain or enhance beneficial contributions of nature to a good quality of life for all people. This is among the key motivations of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), a joint global effort by governments, academia, and civil society to assess and promote knowledge of Earth's biodiversity and ecosystems and their contribution to human societies in order to inform policy formulation. One of the more recent key elements of the IPBES conceptual framework (1) is the notion of nature's contributions to people (NCP), which builds on the ecosystem service concept popularized by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) (2). But as we detail below, NCP as defined and put into practice in IPBES differs from earlier work in several important ways. First, the NCP approach recognizes the central and pervasive role that culture plays in defining all links between people and nature. Second, use of NCP elevates, emphasizes, and operationalizes the role of indigenous and local knowledge in understanding nature's contribution to people.
    • Taking account: a social and economic audit of the third sector in Brighton and Hove

      Bramwell, P.; Hiscock, S.; Mason, P.; Colwell, J.; Church, Andrew; Wolff, D.; Dawson, R.; Golding, D. (University of Brighton, 2008-09-01)
      The 2007/8 social and economic audit of Brighton and Hove’s third sector is the second of its kind, the first being conducted in 2003. Whilst it is widely recognised that the third sector in Brighton and Hove has an important role, the evidence to substantiate social and economic impact is sparse. Taking Account produces evidence of the dynamic and diverse third sector in Brighton and Hove allowing us to: • examine the sector’s social value and impact locally • evidence the sector’s economic value and impact locally • identify the role of the sector in strengthening communities and giving a voice to local people • assess how the sector influences public services • help ensure that the sector is better understood within the context of Brighton and Hove, and evidence its parity with other sectors • help better understand the sector and ensure we are getting the most out of it. Taking Account also tells us about the context in which the sector is operating and the changes since the social and economic audit in 2003, making comparisons where possible to the earlier analysis. This information will assist third sector organisations, policy-makers and commissioning bodies to steer the sector towards a stable and sustainable future.
    • Evaluating and assessing student oral presentations: a limited but effective role for employers in the geography curriculum

      Church, Andrew; Bull, Paul (Routledge, 1995-05-01)
      Employers were involved in assessing students’ presentations, giving feedback and in the development of staff skills for providing feedback. The curriculum context to the oral presentations is described and the problems and benefits of employer involvement are considered. It is argued that it is possible to develop an effective small‐scale approach to employer involvement as an alternative to major schemes.
    • The Thames Gateway: an analysis of the emergence of a sub-regional regeneration initiative

      Church, Andrew; Frost, Martin ([Wiley, Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers)], 1995-07-01)
      This paper examines the recent evolution of a sub-regional planning initiative in the Thames Gateway which is part of London and the South East region of England. In the late 1980s this area had become a focus for the regeneration strategies of national, regional and local government agencies which were justified on the basis of generalizations of the area's socio-economic structure, largely based on its unfavourable image as the 'back-yard' of London. This paper presents some empirical analyses of recent economic and social change affecting the characteristics of sub-areas of the Thames Gateway and considers the aims of redevelopment strategies.
    • Wage determination in Britain: is there a local dimension?

      Church, Andrew; Hutchinson, Gillian (Routledge, 1989-07-01)
      CHURCH A. and HUTCHINSON G. (1989) Wage determination in Britain: is there a local dimension?, Reg. Studies 23, 289–300. This study presents an empirical regression analysis of wage determination in the five labour markets of Motherwell, Preston, Reading, Torquay, and the London Borough of Newham. The data source is a newly available questionnaire survey of approximately 1,000 establishments undertaken in 1984–5. The explanatory variables include the plant's size, ownership, industrial type, three proxies for labour quality (the proportion of youths, the proportion of females and the proportion of part-time workers) and a union recognition dummy variable. The results discuss the relative importance of both national and local influences on pay levels. CHURCH A. et HUTCHINSON G. (1989) La détermination des salaires en Grande-Bretagne: est-ce qu'il y a un optique local?, Reg Studies 23, 289–300. Cet article présente une analyse empirique de régression de la détermination des salaires dans cinq bassins d'emplois, à savoir Motherwell, Preston, Reading, Torquay et l'arrondissement de Newham à Londres. Les données proviennent des résultats d'une enquête par questionnaire embrassant un échantillon de 1 000 établissements effectuée en 1984–5 et qui ont paru récemment. Les variables explicatives comprennent la taille, la propriété, la nomenclature par activité principale, trois estimations de la qualité de la main-d'oeuvre (la proportion de jeunes, la proportion de femmes et la proportion de travailleurs à temps partiel) et une variable muette relative au comportement des syndicats. Les résultats permettent une discussion de l'importance relative des influences à la fois nationales et locales sur les niveaux des salaires. CHURCH A. und HUTCHINSON G. (1989) Festsetzung von Löhnen in Grossbritannien: sind diese irgendwie ortsbezogen?, Reg. Studies 23, 289–300. Diese Studie legt eine empirische Regressionsanalyse der Festsetzung von Löhnen in fünf Arbeitsmärkten vor: Motherwell, Preston, Reading, Torquay und Newham, einem Verwaltungsbezirk Gross-londons. Die Datenquelle ist eine vor kurzem zugänglich gemachte Erhebung, die sich im Jahre 1984–5 mittels Fragebogen an ungefähr 1000 Firmen gewandt hatte. Die erläuternden Veränderlichen enthalten: Betriebsgrösse, Besitzer, Industrietyp, drei stellvertretende Gruppen für die Art von Arbeitskräften (Anteil der Jugendlichen, Anteil der weiblichen Arbeitskräfte und Anteil der Kurzarbeiter) und eine blinde Veränderliche, welche Anerkennung einer Gewerkschaft darstellt. Die Ergebnisse behandeln die relative Bedeutung sowohl nationaler als auch örtlicher Einflüsse auf die Höhe der Löhne.
    • Wages, unions, the youth training scheme and the young workers scheme

      Hutchinson, Gillian; Church, Andrew (Wiley, 1989-05-01)
    • The geography of employment change in the hotel and catering industry of Great Britain in the 1980s: a subregional perspective

      Bull, Paul; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 1994-01-01)
      BULL P. J. and CHURCH A. P. (1994) The geography of employment change in the hotel and catering industry of Great Britain in the 1980s: a subregional perspective, Reg. Studies 28, 13-25. The hotel and catering industry was an important employment growth sector in the British economy in the 1970s and 1980s. The spatial outcomes of this growth have received virtually no research attention. Studies of this important service industry have often been encompassed by tourism research. This paper argues for a specific analysis of hotel and catering using unpublished data which outlines the subregional pattern of employment change between 1981 and 1989. A demand-side explanation examines the role of hotel and catering as a local consumer service, as a producer service and as a response to tourist demand. BULL P. J. et CHURCH A. P. (1994) La géographie de l'evolution de l'emploi dans l'hôtellerie et dans la restauration en Grande-Bretagne au cours des années 80: une perspective sous-régionale, Reg. Studies 28, 13-25. Aux années 70 et 80 l'hôtellerie et la restauration étaient des secteurs porteurs importants de l'economie britannique. Dans le domaine de la recherche on n'a guère tenu compte des impacts géographiques de cette croissance. En effet c'est la recherche du tourisme qui a souvent incorporé des études au sujet de cette industrie de services importante. Cet article propose une analyse particulière de l'hôtellerie et de la restauration à partir des données officieuses et qui esquisse la répartition sous-régionale de l'evolution de l'emploi entre 1981 et 1989. Une explication par la demande examine le rôle de l'hôtellerie et de la restauration en tant qu'un service aux consommateurs local, un service aux producte-urs et une réponse à la demande des touristes. BULL P. J. und CHURCH A. P. (1994) Die Geographie der Veränderungen in der Erwerbstätigkeit im Hotel- und Gaststättengewerbe Groβbritanniens in den achtziger Jahren: eine subregionale Analyse, Reg. Studies 28, 13-25. In den siebziger und achtiger Jahren dieses Jahrhunderts stellte die Zunahme der Erwerbstätigkeit im Hotel- und Gaststättengewerbe einen wichtigen Wachstumssektor der britischen Wirtschaft dar. Den räumlichen Resultaten dieses Wachstums hat die Forschung fast gar keine Auf-merksamkeit geschenkt. Studien dieser wichtigen Dienstlei-stungsindustrie sind oft in die Erforschung des Tourismus einbezogen worden. Dieser Aufsatz tritt fur eine spezifische Analyse des Hotel- und Gaststättengewerbes ein, wobei bisher unveröffentlichte Daten benutzt werden, in der das subregionale Muster des Beschäftigungswandels im Zeitraum 1981-1989 umrissen wird. Eine Erläuterung der Nachfrageseite untersucht die Rolle von Hotels und Gaststätten als eines Verbraucherdienstes am Orte, als eines Herstellerdienstes und als Antwort auf Nachfrage seitens des Touristen.
    • The hotel and catering industry of Great Britain during the 1980s: sub-regional employment change, specialization and dominance

      Bull, Paul; Church, Andrew (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1994-06-01)
      This chapter describes the principal changes in hotel and catering employment at the sub-regional, or country scale, revealing a very uneven spatial pattern. Some of the major demand-side factors are identified as the key determinants of the changing geography of hotel and catering employment. It is a diverse industry and the effect of demand-side changes has resulted in differing levels of employment change in the various activity groups which form the sub-sectors of this industry. The varying growth rates in the different activity groups are examined, arguing that the faster rate of growth in catering compared to accommodation services has certain important spatial outcomes. This is reflected in the changing levels of sub-regional specialization and the extent to which certain countries are dominated by one particular industry sub-sector. The changing nature of spatial specialization in employment in the hotel and catering sector in the 1980s is also examined. The hotel and catering industry is a diverse mix of catering and accommodation services. Within the sub-regions of the UK during the 1980s, these services responded to a complex set of demand stimuli to produced varied and changing mosaic of regional dominance and collectively an uneven pattern of employment change and specialization. The individual regions of the UK have had different experiences of the changing character of the hotel and catering industry during the 1980s.