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Selective anticancer effect of Phellinus linteus on epidermoid cell lines studied by atomic force microscopy: anticancer activity on A431 cancer cells and low toxicity on HaCat normal cellsThe research on the morphological and mechanical properties of single cells has provided a crucial way of understanding the cellular physiology and metabolism. In this study, the selective anticancer effects of Phellinus linteus on A431 and HaCat cells and their morphological and mechanical properties were systematically investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Notably, the cell morphology on the micronano scale was observed under both the physiological environment and immobilization conditions. The significant morphological changes of A431 cells from the flat to spherical shape, the increase of cell height, and the decrease of the particles on the cell membrane were confirmed to be related to the cell apoptosis under the treatment of the Phellinus linteus water extract (PLWE). Moreover, the small morphology variations of HaCat cells showed that the PLWE presented a high anticancer effect on A431 cells but low toxicity on HaCat cells, which indicated a potential cell selectivity between cancer and normal cells. This work proved that Phellinus linteus could be used as a potential candidate for selective anticancer treatments.
Study of NSCLC cell migration promoted by NSCLC-derived extracellular vesicle using atomic force microscopyExtracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by cancer cells play a key role in the cancer microenvironment and progression. Previous studies have mainly focused on molecular functions, cellular components and biological processes using chemical and biological methods. However, whether the mechanical properties of cancer cells change due to EVs remains poorly understood. This work studies the effects of mechanical changes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells after treatment with EVs on migration by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Different concentrations of EVs were added into the experimental groups based on co-culture experiments, while the control group was cultured without EVs for 48 h. Cellular migration was evaluated by wound healing experiments. The cellular morphology, cell stiffness and surface adhesion were investigated by AFM. Cytoskeleton changes were detected by fluorescence staining assay. By comparison to the control group, the cell migration was enhanced. After treatment with EVs, the cell length and height show an upward trend, and the adhesion force and Young's modulus show a downward trend, and filopodia were also detected in the cells. Overall, the EVs promoted the migration of NSCLC cells by regulating cells' physical properties and skeletal rearrangement.
A study on the effects of tumor-derived exosomes on hepatoma cells and hepatocytes by atomic force microscopyTumor-derived exosomes (exos) are closely related to the occurrence, development and treatment of tumors. However, it is not clear how the exosomes affect the physical properties, which lead to the deterioration of the target cells. In this paper, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the effects of exosomes in HCC-LM3 cells and other cells (SMMC-7721 and HL-7702). The results showed that the HCC-LM3-exos (the exosomes secreted by HCC-LM3 cells, 50 μg mL-1) significantly promoted the proliferation and migration of HCC-LM3 cells. HCC-LM3-exos also promoted the proliferation and migration of SMMC-7721 and HL-7702 cells at 1000 and 1500 μg mL-1, respectively. With an increase in time and concentration, the proliferation effect was more significant. On comparing the mechanical properties of the three types of cells (HCC-LM3, SMMC-7721 and HL-7702 cells), the degradation degree and migration ability of the cells were from high to low in the above order. In turn, the surface roughness of the cells decreased, and adhesion and elastic modulus increased. With an increase in treatment time, surface roughness increased, while adhesion and elastic modulus decreased. These suggested that the HCC-LM3-exos could change the mechanical properties of cells, leading to their deterioration, and enhance their migration and invasion ability. In this paper, the effects of exosomes were analyzed from the perspective of the physical parameters of cells, which provide a new idea to study cancer metastasis and prognosis.
Surface modification of Co-Cr-Mo implant alloy by laser interference lithographyThis article studies the feasibility of using laser interference lithography (LIL) for surface modification of Co-Cr-Mo implant alloy which has been universally applied to joint materials in total joint replacements. The tribological performances and surface topography of the samples were studied by RTEC micro-friction and wear tester and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Hardness testing of the modified sample surfaces was carried out using the micro-hardness tester (MH-60). Experimental results indicate that the sample surface modified with laser interference lithography presents better tribological performances and hardness properties than those untreated materials, including a 64% friction coefficient reduction and 40% hardness enhancement, which is very promising to significantly reduce the mean revision rate of post primary total hip replacements in the future.