• Parallel marching blocks: a practical isosurfacing algorithm for large data on many-core architectures

      Liu, Baoquan; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Dong, Feng; Wu, Enhua; University of Bedfordshire; University of Macau (Wiley, 2016-07-04)
      Interactive isosurface visualisation has been made possible by mapping algorithms to GPU architectures. However, current state-of-the-art isosurfacing algorithms usually consume large amounts of GPU memory owing to the additional acceleration structures they require. As a result, the continued limitations on available GPU memory mean that they are unable to deal with the larger datasets that are now increasingly becoming prevalent. This paper proposes a new parallel isosurface-extraction algorithm that exploits the blocked organisation of the parallel threads found in modern many-core platforms to achieve fast isosurface extraction and reduce the associated memory requirements. This is achieved by optimising thread co-operation within thread-blocks and reducing redundant computation; ultimately, an indexed triangular mesh could be produced. Experiments have shown that the proposed algorithm is much faster (up to 10×) than state-of-the-art GPU algorithms and has a much smaller memory footprint, enabling it to handle much larger datasets (up to 64×) on the same GPU. 
    • Parsec: a state channel for the Internet of Value

      Jaiswal, Amit Kumar (2018-07-30)
      We propose Parsec, a web-scale State channel for the Internet of Value to exterminate the consensus bottleneck in Blockchain by leveraging a network of state channels which enable to robustly transfer value off-chain. It acts as an infrastructure layer developed on top of Ethereum Blockchain, as a network protocol which allows coherent routing and interlocking channel transfers for trade-off between parties. A web-scale solution for state channels is implemented to enable a layer of value transfer to the internet. Existing network protocol on State Channels include Raiden for Ethereum and Lightning Network for Bitcoin. However, we intend to leverage existing web-scale technologies used by large Internet companies such as Uber, LinkedIn or Netflix. We use Apache Kafka to scale the global payment operation to trillions of operations per day enabling near-instant, low-fee, scalable, and privacy-sustainable payments. Our architecture follows Event Sourcing pattern which solves current issues of payment solutions such as scaling, transfer, interoperability, low-fees, micropayments and to name a few. To the best of knowledge, our proposed model achieve better performance than state-of-the-art lightning network on the Ethereum based (fork) cryptocoins.
    • Patient empowerment for cancer patients through a novel ICT infrastructure

      Kondylakis, Haridimos; Bucur, Anca; Crico, Chiara; Dong, Feng; Graf, Norbert; Hoffman, Stefan; Koumakis, Lefteris; Manenti, Alice; Marias, Kostas; Mazzocco, Ketti; et al. (Academic Press Inc., 2019-12-06)
      As a result of recent advances in cancer research and “precision medicine” approaches, i.e. the idea of treating each patient with the right drug at the right time, more and more cancer patients are being cured, or might have to cope with a life with cancer. For many people, cancer survival today means living with a complex and chronic condition. Surviving and living with or beyond cancer requires the long-term management of the disease, leading to a significant need for active rehabilitation of the patients. In this paper, we present a novel methodology employed in the iManageCancer project for cancer patient empowerment in which personal health systems, serious games, psychoemotional monitoring and other novel decision-support tools are combined into an integrated patient empowerment platform. We present in detail the ICT infrastructure developed and our evaluation with the involvement of cancer patients on two sites, a large-scale pilot for adults and a small-scale test for children. The evaluation showed mixed evidences on the improvement of patient empowerment, while ability to cope with cancer, including improvement in mood and resilience to cancer, increased for the participants of the adults′ pilot.
    • Patient-specific fibre-based models of muscle wrapping

      Kohout, Josef; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Zhao, Youbing; Tao, Yubo; Gonzalez-Garcia, G.; Dong, Feng; Wei, Hui; Kohoutová, E.; University of West Bohemia; University of Bedfordshire (Royal Society, 2013-04-06)
      In many biomechanical problems, the availability of a suitable model for the wrapping of muscles when undergoing movement is essential for the estimation of forces produced on and by the body during motion. This is an important factor in the Osteoporotic Virtual Physiological Human project which is investigating the likelihood of fracture for osteoporotic patients undertaking a variety of movements. The weakening of their skeletons makes them particularly vulnerable to bone fracture caused by excessive loading being placed on the bones, even in simple everyday tasks. This paper provides an overview of a novel volumetric model that describes muscle wrapping around bones and other muscles during movement, and which includes a consideration of how the orientations of the muscle fibres change during the motion. The method can calculate the form of wrapping of a muscle of medium size and visualize the outcome within tenths of seconds on commodity hardware, while conserving muscle volume. This makes the method suitable not only for educational biomedical software, but also for clinical applications used to identify weak muscles that should be strengthened during rehabilitation or to identify bone stresses in order to estimate the risk of fractures.
    • Patterns-of-life aided authentication

      Zhao, Nan; Ren, Aifeng; Zhang, Zhiya; Zhu, Tianqiao; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Yang, Xiaodong; Hu, Fangming; Xidian University; University of Bedfordshire (MDPI, 2016-09-23)
      Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) applications have grown immensely in the past few years. However, security and privacy of the user are two major obstacles in their development. The complex and very sensitive nature of the body-mounted sensors means the traditional network layer security arrangements are not sufficient to employ their full potential, and novel solutions are necessary. In contrast, security methods based on physical layers tend to be more suitable and have simple requirements. The problem of initial trust needs to be addressed as a prelude to the physical layer security key arrangement. This paper proposes a patterns-of-life aided authentication model to solve this issue. The model employs the wireless channel fingerprint created by the user’s behavior characterization. The performance of the proposed model is established through experimental measurements at 2.45 GHz. Experimental results show that high correlation values of 0.852 to 0.959 with the habitual action of the user in different scenarios can be used for auxiliary identity authentication, which is a scalable result for future studies.
    • PCF based sensor with high sensitivity, high birefringence and low confinement losses for liquid analyte sensing applications

      Ademgil, Huseyin; Haxha, Shyqyri; ; European University of Lefke; University of Bedfordshire (MDPI AG, 2015-12-13)
      In this paper, we report a design of high sensitivity Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) sensor with high birefringence and low confinement losses for liquid analyte sensing applications. The proposed PCF structures are designed with supplementary elliptical air holes in the core region vertically-shaped V-PCF and horizontally-shaped H-PCF. The full vectorial Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations performed to examine the sensitivity, the confinement losses, the effective refractive index and the modal birefringence features of the proposed elliptical air hole PCF structures. We show that the proposed PCF structures exhibit high relative sensitivity, high birefringence and low confinement losses simultaneously for various analytes.
    • Performance analysis of a novel decentralised MAC protocol for cognitive radio networks

      Alhakami, Wajdi; Mansour, Ali; Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2016-09-15)
      Due to the demand of emerging Cognitive Radio (CR) technology to permits using the unused licensed spectrum parts by cognitive users (CUs) to provide opportunistic and efficient utilisation of the white spaces. This requires deploying a CR MAC with the required characteristics to coordinate the spectrum access among CUs. Therefore, this paper presents the design and implementation of a novel Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for decentralised CRNs (MCRN). The protocol provides efficient utilisations of the unused licensed channels and enables CUs to exchange data successfully over licensed channels. This is based on the observation procedure of sensing the status of the Licensed Users (LUs) are ON or OFF over the licensed channels. The protocol is validated with the comparison procedure against two different benchmark protocols in terms of the network performance; communication time and throughput. Therefore, performance analysis demonstrated that the proposed MCRN perform better and achieve higher throughput and time benefits than the benchmarks protocols.
    • Performance analysis of opportunistic relaying and opportunistic hybrid incremental relaying over fading channels

      Lateef, Hafiz Yasar; Dyo, Vladimir; Allen, Ben; University of Bedfordshire; University of Oxford (Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), 2015-06-01)
      In this study, the authors develop and present a comprehensive analysis of two opportunistic cooperative relaying schemes for long term evolution (LTE)-advanced networks operating over generalised- K and Nakagami- m fading channels. They present and compare the performance of opportunistic relaying (OR) and opportunistic hybrid automatic repeat request incremental relaying (OHIR). They analyse performance in terms of the average symbol error rate for both conventional OR and OHIR LTE-advanced networks with the radio channel modelled as composite generalised- K fading (encompassing both fading and shadowing) and Nakagami- m fading channels. They also analyse the outage probability for OR operating over these channels. Both the theoretical analysis and simulations confirm that for conventional OR LTE-advanced networks operating over composite generalised- K fading channels, a diversity order of k ( N + 1) is achieved when shadowing is more severe than fading, and a diversity order of m ( N + 1) is achieved when fading is more severe than shadowing (where k and m represent the generalised- K distribution shape parameters and N represents the number of candidate relays for the OR selection). The simulation results confirm the accuracy of the analytical expressions developed in this study. It is evident from the theoretical analysis and simulations that, for a similar quality of service as that for OR, OHIR not only reduces the amount of required radio resources but also maintains the full diversity order.
    • Performance comparison of top N recommendation algorithms

      Mustafa, Ghulam; Frommholz, Ingo; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-10-26)
      In traditional recommender systems, services/items are recommended to the user based on the initial ratings while the results comes from the predicted rating values are not considered which further refers to top N recommendations. In top N recommendation algorithms, recommendation process is further enhanced by predicting the missing ratings where the basic objective is to find the items that might be interest of a user. Performance comparison and evaluation of different top N recommendation algorithms is quite challenging for large datasets where selection of an appropriate algorithm can help to improve the recommendation process by predicting missing ratings. Therefore, in this paper we analyse and evaluate the 6 different top N recommendation algorithms using accuracy metrics such as precision and recall on Movie-lense 100K dataset from the Group-lens. Our main finding is the selection of Top N recommendation algorithm that perform significantly better than other recommender algorithms in pursuing the top-N recommendation process.
    • Performance evaluation of string based malware detection methods

      Mira, Fahad; Huang, Wei; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019-07-01)
      Conventional signature-based malware detection techniques have been used for many years because of their high detection rates and low false positive rates. However, signature-based detection techniques are regarded as ineffective due to their inability to detect unseen, new, polymorphic and metamorphic malware. To affect the weaknesses of the signature-based detection techniques, researchers have turned into behavioural-based detection techniques whereby a malware behavioural is constructed by capturing malware API calls during execution. In this context, API call sequences matching techniques are widely used to compute malware similarities. However, API call sequences matching techniques require large processing resources which make the process slow due to computational complexity and therefore, cannot scale to large API call sequences. To mitigate its problem, Longest Common Substring and Longest Common Subsequence have been used in this paper for strings matching in order to detect malware and their variants. In this paper we evaluate these two algorithms in the context of malware detection rate and false alarm rate.
    • Periodic antireflection surface structure fabricated on silicon by four-beam laser interference lithography

      Zhang, Ziang; Wang, Zuobin; Wang, Di; Ding, Yu-jie; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire (Laser Institute of America, 2013-12-31)
      Silicon surface structures with excellent antireflection property arouse wide interest. Chemical and physical methods such as femtosecond, nanosecond, and picosecond laser processing, wet-chemical etching, electrochemical etching, and reactive ion etching have been developed to fabricate them. However, the methods can only produce a quasi-ordered array of sharp conical microspikes on silicon surface. In this paper, we present a method to fabricate periodic silicon antireflection surface structures using direct four-beam laser interference lithography (LIL). With 1 atm ambient atmosphere of SF6 and the laser fluence of the four beams irradiated on the silicon surface at 0.64 J cm-2, the periodical conical spikes were generated. Changing the polarization directions of the opposite incident beam pairs in a four-beam LIL system could convert conical spikes structure into an array of holes. Antireflection in a wide spectral range was measured by a spectrophotometer from ultraviolet to near-infrared. The average reflectance of this periodic black silicon surface is less than 3.5%. © 2014 Laser Institute of America.
    • Personally identifiable information security in cloud computing

      Feng, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiangrui (2020-12-18)
      A cyber security application in Personally identifiable information) PII is attracting more and more attention and related to majority people’s everyday activities. The paper is introduced the trends of cyber security in cloud computing and in particular, focus on the responsibility of data privacy, especially in European Union countries. As the impact is on data protection which includes organisation based in the union, or has branches in the union or provides services to the union residents. The paper is also introduced the updated recent development content in our society which caused the impact that we have to deliver ISO standards; for instance, ISO/IEC 27018 and so on. A consequence of the standard is that regular practices of risk assessment need to be carried out in a regular base; such as an annually assessment. Keywords- Data protection, personal privacy, cryptography, cloud computing, cyber security, security policy, Trustworthiness, data service, personally identifiable information (PII), and ISO 27018
    • Photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon sensor design and analyze with elliptical air holes

      Yaşli, Ahmet; Akowuah, Emmanuel K.; Haxha, Shyqyri; Ademgil, Huseyin; European University of Lefke; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-11-24)
      A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor has been presented at this work. The sensor sensitivity for multiple analyte depending on operating wavelength and spectral interrogation mode has been investigated thoroughly. Our numerical results indicate that the sensitivity of the x-polarized fundamental mode is 4100nm/Refractive Index Unit (RIU) and 4400nm/RIU for the y-polarized fundamental mode with 2.4×10-5 RIU and 2.3×10-5 RIU sensor resolutions respectively.
    • Physical detection of misbehavior in relay systems with unreliable channel state information

      Lv, Tiejun; Yin, Yajun; Lu, Yueming; Yang, Shaoshi; Liu, Enjie; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; University of Bedfordshire; Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications; Huawei Technolgies Co. (IEEE, 2018-04-09)
      We study the detection 1 of misbehavior in a Gaussian relay system, where the source transmits information to the destination with the assistance of an amplify-and-forward relay node subject to unreliable channel state information (CSI). The relay node may be potentially malicious and corrupt the network by forwarding garbled information. In this situation, misleading feedback may take place, since reliable CSI is unavailable at the source and/or the destination. By classifying the action of the relay as detectable or undetectable, we propose a novel approach that is capable of coping with any malicious attack detected and continuing to work effectively in the presence of unreliable CSI. We demonstrate that the detectable class of attacks can be successfully detected with a high probability. Meanwhile, the undetectable class of attacks does not affect the performance improvements that are achievable by cooperative diversity, even though such an attack may fool the proposed detection approach. We also extend the method to deal with the case in which there is no direct link between the source and the destination. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been validated by numerical results.
    • Play that funky password! Recent advances in authentication with music

      Gibson, Marcia; Renaud, Karen; Conrad, Marc; Maple, Carsten; Gupta, Manish; University of Bedfordshire; University of Glasgow; University of Warwick; State University of New York at Buffalo (IGI Global, 2014-12-22)
      Over the last few years, there has been emerging interest in authenticating users through the medium of music. Historically, developers of alternate modality systems have focused on image- and haptic-based techniques, instinctively shying away from music. This might be due to the inherently temporal nature of the listening task and the belief that this would be impractical and frustrating for users. In this chapter, the authors discuss and present new research in this field that, to the contrary, indicates that the “enjoyability factor” means users may be more willing to spend additional time authenticating with music than they would with other techniques. Although undeniably not the optimal solution in time-critical contexts, for many other pursuits music-based authentication could feasibly replace passwords, easing the number of secure strings the average user is expected to remember. Music may also offer a better solution for those suffering memory or cognitive impairments. This chapter incorporates discussion on recent advances in the field of authentication research within the context of a changing threat landscape. A prototype musical password system is presented and a summary of results from online user testing and a lab-based controlled experiment are presented which further reinforce the importance of accounting for “enjoyability” in the assessment of recognition-based authentication schemes.
    • Point controlled energy efficient medium access in WLANs for low latency communications

      Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali; Ur-Rehman, Masood; University of Bedfordshire; University of Essex (IEEE, 2019-11-18)
      Wireless networks are going through huge development due to growth in demand and supply of new wireless terminals having multiple features. Their application areas range from communication to infotainment and medical to gaming. Inclusion of large number of features make availability of sufficient power for long operational hours a key challenge in these devices. Hence, limited battery life of wireless terminals makes energy efficiency an important issue in wireless networks. Medium access control (MAC) protocols play an essential role in this context. In fact, MAC protocols can have a significant impact on energy consumption since both transmission and reception activities are very costly in terms of energy. A centralised polling based MAC avoids collisions and can guarantee a higher energy efficiency with respect to pure carrier sense multiple access (CSMA). Pointer controlled slot allocation and resynchronisation (PCSAR) protocol implements power conscious scheduling techniques to enable terminals enter prolonged sleep state, thereby improving the overall energy consumption of the network. This paper investigates the performance of PCSAR and compares it with the IEEE 802.11 standard infrastructure power save mode (PSM). Results demonstrate that PCSAR outperforms the standard mode in a composite rate WLAN scenario. Moreover, use of TDM based circuit switching makes PCSAR more reliable. These features make it a potentially good candidate for energy efficient reliable low latency communication for current (4G/LTE) and future (5G and beyond) applications.
    • Polyrepresentative clustering: a study of simulated user strategies and representations

      Frommholz, Ingo; Abbasi, Muhammad Kamran (CEUR-WS, 2015-12-31)
      The principle of polyrepresentation and document clustering are two established methods for Interactive Information Retrieval, which have been used separately so far. In this paper we discuss a cluster based polyrepresentation approach for information need and document based representations. In our work we simulate and evaluate two possible cluster browsing strategies a user could apply to explore the polyrepresentative clusters. In our evaluation we apply information need and bibliographic features on the iSearch collection. Our results suggest that polyrepresentative cluster browsing may be more effective than exploring a ranked list.
    • Practical hash-based anonymity for MAC addresses

      Ali, Junade; Dyo, Vladimir (ScitePress, 2020-06-18)
      Given that a MAC address can uniquely identify a person or a vehicle, continuous tracking over a large geographical scale has raised serious privacy concerns amongst governments and the general public. Prior work has demonstrated that simple hash-based approaches to anonymization can be easily inverted due to the small search space of MAC addresses. In particular, it is possible to represent the entire allocated MAC address space in 39 bits and that frequency-based attacks allow for 50% of MAC addresses to be enumerated in 31 bits. We present a practical approach to MAC address anonymization using both computationally expensive hash functions and truncating the resulting hashes to allow for k-anonymity. We provide an expression for computing the percentage of expected collisions, demonstrating that for digests of 24 bits it is possible to store up to 168,617 MAC addresses with the rate of collisions less than 1%. We experimentally demonstrate that a rate of collision of 1% or less can be achieved by storing data sets of 100 MAC addresses in 13 bits, 1,000 MAC addresses in 17 bits and 10, 000 MAC addresses in 20 bits.
    • Predicting intentions to text and call while driving using the theory of planned behaviour

      Sullman, M.J.M.; Hill, Tetiana; Stephens, A.N. (Elsevier, 2018-07-03)
      There is extensive evidence that using a mobile phone while driving causes degradation in driving performance, and thereby results in reduced safety on the road. The present study examined intentions to use mobile phones while driving using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). A total of 212 Ukrainian drivers (mean age = 35 years SD = 10 years; males = 82%) completed a survey that included measures of the TPB components related to intentions to send or read text messages or to make or receive handheld phone calls across two different scenarios; one where they were running late, and the other when they were not in a hurry. Measures of the frequency of mobile phone use were also collected. The results showed that 63% of the sample reported using a mobile phone while driving at least daily, with the most frequent types of usage being making and answering a phone call with a handheld device. The most consistent predictor of intentions to interact with a mobile phone while driving was having a positive attitude towards doing so. Perceived behavioural control was also significantly and positively associated with mobile phone use while driving, but only a small number of associations were found with subjective norms. Our results suggest that intentions to interact with mobile phones while driving may be context specific.
    • Presence Aware Power Saving Mode (PA-PSM) enhancement for IoT devices for energy conservation

      Saleem, Abdul; Jazani, David; Yu, Hong Qing; University of Bedfordshire (Scientific Research Publishing, 2019-09-04)
      The Internet of Things has brought a vision to turn the digital object into smart devices by adding an intelligence system and thereafter connecting them to the internet world. These smart devices accumulate environmental information with the help of sensors and act consequently without human intervention. The Internet of Thing is a rapidly growing industry with expected 50 - 200 billion smart devices to connect to the internet. Multi-billions of smart devices will produce a substantial amount of data to provide services to human society, although, it will lead to increase energy consumption at the highest level and drive to high energy bills. Moreover, the flood of IoT devices may also lead to energy scarcity. IoT is nowadays mainly focused on the IT industry and researchers believe the next wave of IoT may connect 1 trillion sensors by 2025. Even if these sensors would have 10 years of battery life, it will still require 275 million batteries to be replaced every day. Therefore, it is a necessity to reduce energy consumption in smart devices. “Presence Aware Power Saving Mode (PA-PSM) Enhancement for IoT Devices for Energy Conservation”, a proposed novel approach in this research paper by the help of a proposed algorithm in this research paper to reduce power consumption by individual devices within smart homes. In the proposed approach, a centralized automation controller keeps the less priority smart devices into deep sleep mode to save energy and experiments suggest the proposed system may help to reduce 25.81% of the energy consumed by smart devices within the smart home.