• 21st century catch toolkit: practical approaches for sustainable inshore fishing communities

      Acott, T.; Urquhart, J.; Church, Andrew; Kennard, M.; Gallic, B.; Leplat, M.; Lescrawauet, A.; Nourry, M.; Orchard-Webb, Johanne; Roelofs, M.; et al. (University of Greenwich, 2014-09-04)
      The 21st Century Catch Toolkit is a product of the INTERREG IVa 2 Seas project GIFS (Geography of Inshore Fishing and Sustainability). Work on the GIFS project was completed between January 2012 and September 2014 and was undertaken by a collaboration of six partners from four European countries bordering the Southern North Sea and English Channel. GIFS aimed to understand and capture the social, economic and cultural importance of inshore fishing to better inform fisheries policy, coastal regeneration strategies and sustainable community development. The project has involved a range of research projects, regeneration activities and case studies across southern England, northern France, Flanders and the southern Netherlands. GIFS partners have worked with local stakeholders and communities to explore the geographical diversity and similarities of fishing ports, harbours and people along the Channel and Southern North Sea. This toolkit is a product of that collaboration which provides useful findings and advice on how to value the social, economic and cultural importance of inshore fishing today.
    • Acoustic mapping of submerged Stone Age sites – a HALD approach

      Grøn, Ole; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Smith, Morgan F.; Joy, Shawn; Tayong-Boumda, Rostand; Mäder, Andreas; Bleicher, Niels; Madsen, Bo; Cvikel, Deborah; Nilsson, Björn; et al. (MDPI, 2021-01-27)
      Acoustic response from lithics knapped by humans has been demonstrated to facilitate effective detection of submerged Stone Age sites exposed on the seafloor or embedded within its sediments. This phenomenon has recently enabled the non-invasive detection of several hitherto unknown submerged Stone Age sites, as well as the registration of acoustic responses from already known localities. Investigation of the acoustic-response characteristics of knapped lithics, which appear not to be replicated in naturally cracked lithic pieces (geofacts), is presently on-going through laboratory experiments and finite element (FE) modelling of high-resolution 3D-scanned pieces. Experimental work is also being undertaken, employing chirp sub-bottom systems (reflection seismic) on known sites in marine areas and inland water bodies. Fieldwork has already yielded positive results in this initial stage of development of an optimised Human-Altered Lithic Detection (HALD) method for mapping submerged Stone Age sites. This paper reviews the maritime archaeological perspectives of this promising approach, which potentially facilitates new and improved practice, summarizes existing data, and reports on the present state of development. Its focus is not reflection seismics as such, but a useful resonance phenomenon induced by the use of high-resolution reflection seismic systems.
    • Arts & humanities perspectives on Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES)

      Coates, P.; Brady, Emily; Church, Andrew; Cowell, B.; Daniels, S.; DeSilvey, C.; Fish, Rob; Holyoak, V.; Horrell, D.; Mackey, S.; et al. (UNEP-WCMC, LWEC, UK, 2014-04-01)
    • Assessing nature's contributions to people

      Diaz, Sandra; Pascual, Unai; Stenseke, Marie; Martin-Lopez, Berta; Watson, Robert T.; Molnár, Zsolt; Hill, Rosemary; Chan, Kai M.A.; Baste, Ivar A.; Brauman, Kate A.; et al. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2018-01-19)
      A major challenge today and into the future is to maintain or enhance beneficial contributions of nature to a good quality of life for all people. This is among the key motivations of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), a joint global effort by governments, academia, and civil society to assess and promote knowledge of Earth's biodiversity and ecosystems and their contribution to human societies in order to inform policy formulation. One of the more recent key elements of the IPBES conceptual framework (1) is the notion of nature's contributions to people (NCP), which builds on the ecosystem service concept popularized by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) (2). But as we detail below, NCP as defined and put into practice in IPBES differs from earlier work in several important ways. First, the NCP approach recognizes the central and pervasive role that culture plays in defining all links between people and nature. Second, use of NCP elevates, emphasizes, and operationalizes the role of indigenous and local knowledge in understanding nature's contribution to people.
    • The attitudes of recreational user representatives to pollution reduction and the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive

      Ravenscroft, Neil; Church, Andrew; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 2010-06-11)
      Under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), all water bodies must be of ‘good ecological status’ by 2015. One of the major beneficiaries of this will be those who use water for sport and recreation activities. It is certainly the case that some waters do contain – at some times – concentrations of pollutants sufficient to be a potential threat to public health but there is little robust evidence that water quality is a major constraint to many water-based activities. This paper addresses the current evidence deficit through a survey of recreational user representatives, exploring the cultural and political influences on decisions about when the quality of water is sufficient for their activity to take place. Using a reading of Bourdieu's ‘feel for the game’, the paper argues that there is a spectrum of involvement, contact and participation that conditions use and, thus, helps to establish an appropriate context for understanding the potential impacts on water-based recreation of the implementation of the WFD.
    • Beyond the water efficiency calculators

      Robinson, D.; Adeyeye, O.; Madgwick, D.; Church, Andrew (WATEF Network/ University of Brighton, 2014-09-09)
      Evidence suggests that since water shortages are partly rooted in human behaviour, theenvironmental impact can consequently be managed through behaviour change. Beforebehaviour change can occur the existing behaviour must first be observed, and theinfluences understood. Even though research in environmental behaviour is abundant,past studies attempting to link psychological variables to conservation behaviour arethought to have produced mixed, inconclusive findings. Moreover, most of this researchhas concentrated on recycling and energy conservation, and there are still few studiesinvestigating the combined physical, sociological and psychological aspects of householdwater usage to a sufficient level of detail and granularity.This paper presents findings of an initial review of behavioural theories and models inexisting literature learning from the broad evidence in resource efficiency studies forspecific applications to water efficiency. The paper concludes with an integratedframework for the design and delivery of water efficiency interventions. This frameworkwill provide the theoretical basis to a study which aims to propose a simplifiedintervention approach that integrates the physical, sociological and psychologicalinfluences in water efficiency interventions.The resulting framework is also beneficial in the wider context to align detailed andaccurate water end use data with a range of socio-demographic, stock inventory,residential attitude and behavioural factors. This will aid the development of tools andtechniques that are capable of revealing the determinants of water end use. This willcontribute to even more robust understanding of water demand and inform the design ofeffective water use interventions.
    • Coast and the creative class: relocation and regeneration at the edge

      Church, Andrew; Gilchrist, P.; Ravenscroft, Neil (Leisure Studies Association, 2014-01-01)
      This chapter reviews Richard Florida's 'creative class' thesis in the context of the regeneration of an English seaside town. Taking Hastings as a case study, it investigates the lure of location and artistic networks to the relocation decisions of creative and cultural professionals.
    • Conceptualising cultural ecosystem services: a novel framework for research and critical engagement

      Fish, Rob; Church, Andrew; Winter, Michael; University of Kent; University of Brighton; University of Exeter (Elsevier, 2016-11-11)
      The construction of culture as a class of ecosystem service presents a significant test of the holistic ambitions of an ecosystems approach to decision making. In this paper we explore the theoretical challenges arising from efforts to understand ecosystems as objects of cultural concern and consider the operational complexities associated with understanding how, and with what consequences, knowledge about cultural ecosystem services are created, communicated and accounted for in real world decision making. We specifically forward and develop a conceptual framework for understanding cultural ecosystem services and related benefits in terms of the environmental spaces and cultural practices that arise from interactions between humans and ecosystems. The types of knowledge, and approaches to knowledge production, presumed by this relational, non-linear and place-based perspective on cultural ecosystem services are discussed and reviewed. The framework not only helps navigate more fully the challenge of operationalising ‘cultural ecosystem services’ but points to a more relational understanding of the ecosystem services framework as a whole. Extending and refining understanding through more ambitious engagements in interdisciplinarity remains important.
    • Connecting communities through food: the theoretical foundations of community supported agriculture in the UK

      Ravenscroft, Neil; Moore, Niamh; Welch, Ed; Church, Andrew (Centre for Research on Socio-Cultural Change; The University of Manchester and The Open University, 2012-10-31)
      This paper seeks to make a contribution to debates about the continuing performance and significance of community within contemporary society. The subject of the paper is Community Supported Agriculture (CSA), a relatively new form of co-operative venture between farmers and their neighbours in which the community shoulders some of the risk of farming (usually by pre-paying agreed prices for the produce) and shares in the resulting harvest. This approach to farming is increasingly popular in Western societies, where it is commonly seen as a means of ‘re-establishing’ localised relationships between community members, farmers and the environment. While recognising the transformative potential of CSA, this paper suggests that the theoretical foundations of such co-operation are well-established and can be understood as gift-based, fostering deep connections between people as a means of resisting external pressures. As such, this paper posits that the significance of the emergence of CSA lies in the refusal to accept a market-based notion of food communities and the durability of certain forms of community as a means of understanding the ways in which people actively engage in making multiple connections, in this case with other people, with land and with food.
    • Corporate social responsibility and maturity mismatch of investment and financing: evidence from polluting and non-polluting companies

      Bao, Xiaolan; Luo, Qiaosheng; Li, Sicheng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Yue, Xiao-Guang; Huazhong Agricultural University; Oxford University; University of Bedfordshire; Shanxi University; European University Cyprus; et al. (MDPI, 2020-06-18)
      We investigate the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the maturity mismatch of investment and financing from the perspective of both polluting and non-polluting companies. The results reveal that CSR performance can aggravate the maturity mismatch of investment and financing; and the e ect can be more serious in the polluting companies. At the same time, we find that CSR makes companies obtain more short-term debt. What is more, polluting companies perform more environmental responsibilities in the form of long-term investments than non-polluting companies. These phenomena exacerbate the maturity mismatch of investment and financing; and this e ect is only significant when polluting companies choose CSR mandatory disclosure. The impact of CSR on the maturity mismatch of investment and financing is more apparent in companies with lower value and at smaller scales. We show that companies should not only perform their CSR to maintain a balanced economic and ecological development, but also pay attention to the aggravation of the maturity mismatch of investment and financing.
    • Cultural ecosystem services, water, and aquatic environments

      Church, Andrew; Fish, Rob; Ravenscroft, Neil; Stapleton, L.M. (UNESCO and Cambridge University Press, 2015-03-26)
      Chapter 17
    • Cultural services: UK national ecosystem assessment: technical report: ecosystem services - Chapter 16

      Church, Andrew; Burgess, J.; Ravenscroft, Neil; UK National Ecosystem Assessment - WCMC (UK National Ecosystem Assessment -WCMC, 2011-06-01)
    • Deliberative Democratic Monetary Valuation to implement the Ecosystem Approach

      Orchard-Webb, Johanne; Kenter, Jasper O.; Bryce, Ros; Church, Andrew; University of Brighton; Scottish Association for Marine Science; University of the Highlands and Islands (Elsevier, 2016-11-09)
      The potential for developing the participatory dimensions of the Ecosystem Approach are examined through the work of Habermas to guide the design of Deliberative Democratic Monetary Valuation (DDMV) and elicit social willingness to pay. DDMV is contrasted with Deliberated Preferences approaches, which are a deliberative adaptation of stated preference techniques and comprise almost all Deliberative Monetary Valuation studies so far. In a detailed case study where coastal and marine cultural ecosystem services were set within a broader societal context, DDMV was undertaken through three iterative workshops involving a single group of participants representing local residents and different interests across the public, private and third sectors. The use of DDMV generates insights into its potential for securing a socially sustainable route to environmental management: sustainable development that brings together values for ecosystem services with other social priorities, is more inclusive of diverse user needs and values, and is sensitive to issues of environmental justice. As well as highlighting the benefits and challenges that a more democratic deliberative valuation presents, we highlight the practical strengths and vulnerabilities of this approach and indicate directions for further methodological evolution of DDMV.
    • Developing principles of sustainability and stakeholder engagement for “gentle” remediation approaches: the European context

      Cundy, A.B.; Bardos, R.; Church, Andrew; Puschenreiter, M.; Friesl-Hanl, W.; Müller, I.; Neu, S.; Mench, M.; Witters, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; et al. (Elsevier, 2013-08-22)
      Gentle Remediation Options (GRO) are risk management strategies or techniques for contaminated sites that result in no gross reduction in soil functionality (or a net gain) as well as risk management. Intelligently applied GROs can provide: (a) rapid risk management via pathway control, through containment and stabilisation, coupled with a longer term removal or immobilisation/isolation of the contaminant source term; and (b) a range of additional economic (e.g. biomass generation), social (e.g. leisure and recreation) and environmental (e.g. CO2 sequestration) benefits. In order for these benefits to be optimised or indeed realised, effective stakeholder engagement is required. This paper reviews current sector practice in stakeholder engagement and its importance when implementing GRO and other remediation options. From this, knowledge gaps are identified, and strategies to promote more effective stakeholder engagement during GRO application are outlined. Further work is required on integrating stakeholder engagement strategies into decision support systems and tools for GRO (to raise the profile of the benefits of effective stakeholder engagement and participation, particularly with sector professionals), and developing criteria for the identification of different stakeholder profiles/categories. Demonstrator sites can make a significant contribution to stakeholder engagement via providing evidence on the effectiveness of GRO under varying site contexts and conditions. Effective and sustained engagement strategies however will be required to ensure that site risk is effectively managed over the longer-term, and that full potential benefits of GRO (e.g. CO2 sequestration, economic returns from biomass generation and “leverage” of marginal land, amenity and educational value, ecosystem services) are realised and communicated to stakeholders.
    • Dr. Yang Zhong: an explorer on the road forever

      Chen, Fan; Lu, Bao-Rong; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zhao, Jiayuan; Zhong, Bo-jian; Geng, Yu-peng; Zheng, Yufang; Wang, Hong-yan; Chinese Academy of Sciences; Fudan University; et al. (Springer, 2017-12-30)
      On the morning of September 25th 2017, grievous news spread from the remote Ordos region of Inner Mongolia to Fudan University campus in Shanghai. Professor Yang Zhong, a famous botanist and the Dean of Fudan University’s graduate school, passed away in a tragic car accident while on a business trip.
    • Energy management optimization of open-pit mine solar photothermal-photoelectric membrane distillation using a support vector machine and a non-dominated genetic algorithm

      Zhang, Sai; Lu, Caiwu; Jiang, Song; Lu, Shan; Crabbe, M. James C.; Xiong, Neal Naixue; Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology; Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Oxford University; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2020-08-25)
      As a distributed energy source, open-pit mine solar photothermal-photoelectric membrane distillation can convert solar energy into heat and electrical energy to provide power for membrane distillation water purification system. In mine sewage treatment, the solar membrane distillation system has the advantages of high desalination rate, good water quality and low cost. However, this system has not been widely promoted and applied because of its high energy consumption and low membrane flux. Different operating parameters have a greater impact on the operating efficiency of the solar membrane distillation system. In this study, a natural cooling film distillation system was built, and the response surface method was used to analyze it, and a multi-objective optimization algorithm was used to optimize the operating conditions and improve the energy efficiency of the system. In our experiment, the hot end feed temperature, hot end feed flow rate, cold end cooling water flow rate, and membrane area were used as variables, and the membrane flux, thermal efficiency, and energy consumption values were investigated as target values. We used a support vector machine (SVM) with improved fitting, and substituted the fitting rediction model into the response surface method for the relationship between the variable and the target value collaborative analysis was followed by substituting the model into a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). After the optimization operation, the optimal working conditions were obtained to improve the operating efficiency of the solar membrane distillation system, which will enable open-pit mine prosumers to realize intelligent management of solar energy generation, storage and consumption simultaneously.
    • English wetlands: spaces of nature, culture, imagination

      Gearey, Mary; Church, Andrew; Ravenscroft, Neil (Palgrave Pivot, 2020-06-11)
      The origins of this book are drawn from a research project entitled WetlandLIFE: Taking the Bite Out of Wetlands, which ran from July 2016 to July January 2020, funded by the Valuing Nature Programme, supported by a number of UK Research Councils. The research team are from a consortium of UK universities alongside public and third-sector organisations and independent creative practitioners. The overall ambition of the project has been to improve wetland management by delivering national ecological guidance for managing insect populations, particularly mosquitoes, as part of healthy wetland environments, and to encourage the recreational use of wetlands to support the health and wellbeing of local populations. To do this, 12 English wetlands were selected for an ecological survey of mosquito species on each site. We then selected three of these case study sites, in Bedfordshire, Somerset and the Humber Valley, to research human use, experience, value and perception of local wetlands. This book draws on all elements of the project and other influences taken from our combined research portfolios concerned with water and the environment.Thinking widely about the ways in which humans have shaped landscapes across time, and conversely the ways in which landscapes have sculpted human lives and cultures, this book seeks to celebrate the beauty, and complexities, of English wetlands from a contemporary purview. Attention is given to the ways in which these waterscapes have been much maligned, particularly in historical cultural representations, and how these waterscapes are increasingly understood as essential components for enabling transitions towards sustainable futures. Whilst the empirical fieldwork data which appears in all six chapters of the book is taken from the WetlandLIFE project work, the book also uses a range of materials drawn from other perspectives, including palaeoenvironmental archaeology; landscape architecture and environmental planning; human geography; ecosystem services; eco-criticism; literary, cultural and critical theory; environmental history; and natural resources management. As a result the book will appeal to a diverse audience. For those readers who feel an affinity with English wetlands and are keen to discover more about these spaces, the case study sites afford detail and nuance which are in turn particular to these places and local communities, and also emblematic of wider changes and trends across these waterscapes at a generic level.In order to provide clarity of focus, the book only reflects upon English wetlands, though readers are signposted to the work of other writers, both practitioners and theorists, throughout the book, for further reading and to enable considerations of other ways of { extquoteleft}knowing{ extquoteright} wetlands that are outside the remits of this work. We hope that by the end of the book, our readers will feel sufficiently engaged and curious to visit the case study sites that we have so grown to admire and to feel encouraged to explore other wetlands, armed with novel insights which will hopefully enable them to view these landscapes in an entirely new way. So don your welly boots and get out into the great outdoors; you won{ extquoteright}t regret it.
    • Enjoying water: a strategy for water based recreation in the South West, 2009-2014

      Ravenscroft, Neil; Church, Andrew; Taylor, Becky; Young, J.; Curry, N. (Environment Agency, 2009-01-01)
      ‘Enjoying water’, a strategy for water based recreation in the South West, has been developed by the University of Brighton, Countryside and Community Research Institute and Exegesis SDM Ltd for the Environment Agency in association with a steering group from British Waterways, Natural England, South West of England Regional Development Agency, Sport England and in consultation with the Government Office for the South West.
    • Fiscal expenditures on science and technology and environmental pollution: evidence from China

      Xiong, Wanfang; Han, Yan; Crabbe, M. James C.; Yue, Xiao-Guang; Huazhong University of Science and Technology; Beijing Institute of Technology; Oxford University; Shanxi University; University of Bedfordshire; European University Cyprus; et al. (MDPI, 2020-11-25)
      Studying the driving factors of environmental pollution is of great importance for China. Previous literature mainly focused on the cause of national aggregate emission changes. However, research about the effect of fiscal expenditures on science and technology (FESTs) on environmental pollution is rare. Considering the large gap among cities in China, it is necessary to investigate whether and how FESTs affect environmental pollution among cities. We adopted three kinds of typical environmental pollutants including sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions, wastewater emission, and atmospheric particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5). Using the data of 260 prefecture-level cities over ten years in China, we found that FESTs play a significantly positive role in reducing sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and PM2.5 concentrations, but fail to alleviate wastewater emissions. Specifically, for every 1% increase in FESTs, SO2 emissions were reduced by 5.317% and PM2.5 concentrations were reduced by 5.329%. Furthermore, we found that FESTs reduced environmental pollution by impeding fixed asset investments and by promoting research and development activities (R&D). Moreover, the impacts of FESTs on environmental pollution varied across regions and sub-periods. Our results are robust to a series of additional checks, including alternative econometric specifications, generalized method of moments (GMM) analysis and overcoming potential endogeneity with an instrumental variable. Our findings confirm that government efforts can be effective on pollution control in China. Hence, all governments should pay more attention to FESTs for sustainable development and environmental quality improvements.