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Driving anger in Ukraine: appraisals, not trait driving anger, predict anger intensity while drivingTrait driving anger is often, but not always, found to predict both the intensity of anger while driving and subsequent crash-related behaviours. However, a number of studies have not found support for a direct relationship between one's tendency to become angry and anger reported while driving, suggesting that other factors may mediate this relationship. The present self-report study investigated whether, in anger provoking driving situations, the appraisals made by drivers influence the relationship between trait and state anger. A sample of 339 drivers from Ukraine completed the 33-item version of the Driver Anger Scale (DAS; Deffenbacher et al.; 1994) and eight questions about their most recent experience of driving anger. A structural equation model found that the intensity of anger experienced was predicted by the negative evaluations of the situation, which was in turn predicted by trait driving anger. However, trait driving anger itself did not predict anger intensity; supporting the hypothesis that evaluations of the driving situation mediate the relationship between trait and state anger. Further, the unique structure of the DAS required to fit the data from the Ukrainian sample, may indicate that the anger inducing situations in Ukraine are different to those of a more developed country. Future research is needed to investigate driving anger in Ukraine in a broader sample and also to confirm the role of the appraisal process in the development of driving anger in both developed and undeveloped countries.
Mobile phone involvement, beliefs, and texting while driving in UkraineThere is extensive evidence that using a mobile phone whilst driving is one of the biggest contributors to driver distraction, which in turn increases the risk of motor vehicle collisions. Whilst most of the developed countries have been trying to deter this behaviour through legislation, enforcement and educational campaigns, in Ukraine, where the road fatality rate is the highest in Europe, this issue has only recently become publicised. The present study examined psychological factors that are associated with hand-held mobile phone use while driving among a sample of Ukrainian drivers, in particular writing or reading a text message while driving. This included drivers’ behavioural, normative, and control beliefs relating to mobile phone use while driving, as well as the degree to which using a mobile phone is integral to one's everyday life (measured using the Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire; MPIQ). Almost one quarter to one third of the sample reported using their phone on a daily basis to write (22.2%) or read (38.2%) text messages while driving. A binary logistic regression showed that gender, higher MPIQ scores, perceived approval from family members, lower perceived likelihood of receiving traffic fines and less demanding traffic conditions were all significantly associated with mobile phone use while driving. These results suggest that dependence upon a mobile phone in everyday life may be an important factor to consider when developing interventions to reduce hand-held mobile phone use while driving.