Now showing items 21-40 of 6657

    • Chronic probiotic supplementation with or without glutamine does not influence the eHsp72 response to a multi-day ultra-endurance exercise event

      Marshall, Hannah; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Suckling, Craig Anthony; Roberts, Justin D.; Foster, Josh; Taylor, Lee; ; University of Bedfordshire; Qatar University; Anglia Ruskin University; et al. (Canadian Science Publishing, 2017-05-01)
      Probiotic and glutamine supplementation increases tissue Hsp72, but their influence on extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic probiotic supplementation, with or without glutamine, on eHsp72 concentration before and after an ultramarathon. Thirty-two participants were split into 3 independent groups, where they ingested probiotic capsules (PRO; n = 11), probiotic + glutamine powder (PGLn; n = 10), or no supplementation (CON; n = 11), over a 12-week period prior to commencement of the Marathon des Sables (MDS). eHsp72 concentration in the plasma was measured at baseline, 7 days pre-race, 6-8 h post-race, and 7 days post-race. The MDS increased eHsp72 concentrations by 124% (F[1,3] = 22.716, p < 0.001), but there was no difference in the response between groups. Additionally, PRO or PGLn supplementation did not modify pre- or post-MDS eHsp72 concentrations compared with CON (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the MDS caused a substantial increase in eHsp72 concentration, indicating high levels of systemic stress. However, chronic PRO or PGLn supplementation did not affect eHsp72 compared with control pre- or post-MDS. Given the role of eHsp72 in immune activation, the commercially available supplements used in this study are unlikely to influence this cascade.
    • Muscle-damaging exercise 48 h prior to a maximal incremental exercise treadmill test reduces time to exhaustion: is it time to reconsider our pretest procedures?

      Chrismas, Bryna C.; Taylor, Lee; Siegler, Jason C.; Midgley, Adrian W.; ; Qatar University; University of Bedfordshire; University of Western Sydney; Edge Hill University (Taylor and Francis Inc., 2016-11-15)
      Pretest guidelines typically stipulate that no exercise should be performed 48 h prior to a maximal incremental exercise (Formula presented.) test. However, no study has specifically investigated if this timescale alters key outcome variables associated with (Formula presented.). Twenty apparently healthy males split into two equal groups performed (Formula presented.) during three visits (visits 1–(Formula presented.) EXP1, 2–(Formula presented.) EXP2 and 4–(Formula presented.) EXP3). The experimental group only, performed muscle-damaging exercise during visit 3. From (Formula presented.) EXP2 to (Formula presented.) EXP3 average time to exhaustion (TTE) decreased by 45 s (9%) (p < 0.01), maximum blood lactate decreased by 1.2 mmol/L (11%) (p = 0.03), and perceived readiness decreased by 8 mm (18%) (p = 0.01). There were no changes in any (Formula presented.) variables in the control group (p ≥ 0.37). Performing (Formula presented.) 48 h following muscle-damaging exercise impairs specific, but not all, physiological outcome variables.
    • Privacy-preserving identity broadcast for contact tracing applications

      Dyo, Vladimir; Ali, Jahangir; University of Bedfordshire (2021-08-10)
      Wireless Contact tracing has emerged as an important tool for managing the COVID19 pandemic and relies on continuous broadcasting of a person’s presence using Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The limitation of current contact tracing systems in that a reception of a single beacon is sufficient to reveal the user identity, potentially exposing users to malicious trackers installed along the roads, passageways, and other infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a method based on Shamir secret sharing algorithm, which lets mobile nodes reveal their identity only after a certain predefined contact duration, remaining invisible to trackers with short or fleeting encounters. Through data-driven evaluation, using a dataset containing 18 million BLE sightings, we show that the method drastically reduces the privacy exposure of users. Finally, we implemented the approach on Android phones to demonstrate its feasibility and measure performance for various network densities.
    • The impact of different environmental conditions on cognitive function: a focused review

      Taylor, Lee; Watkins, Samuel L.; Marshall, Hannah; Dascombe, Ben; Foster, Josh; Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital; University of Bedfordshire; University of Newcastle, Australia (Frontiers Media S.A., 2016-01-06)
      Cognitive function defines performance in objective tasks that require conscious mental effort. Extreme environments, namely heat, hypoxia, and cold can all alter human cognitive function due to a variety of psychological and/or biological processes. The aims of this Focused Review were to discuss; (1) the current state of knowledge on the effects of heat, hypoxic and cold stress on cognitive function, (2) the potential mechanisms underpinning these alterations, and (3) plausible interventions that may maintain cognitive function upon exposure to each of these environmental stressors. The available evidence suggests that the effects of heat, hypoxia, and cold stress on cognitive function are both task and severity dependent. Complex tasks are particularly vulnerable to extreme heat stress, whereas both simple and complex task performance appear to be vulnerable at even at moderate altitudes. Cold stress also appears to negatively impact both simple and complex task performance, however, the research in this area is sparse in comparison to heat and hypoxia. In summary, this focused review provides updated knowledge regarding the effects of extreme environmental stressors on cognitive function and their biological underpinnings. Tyrosine supplementation may help individuals maintain cognitive function in very hot, hypoxic, and/or cold conditions. However, more research is needed to clarify these and other postulated interventions.
    • How the integration of telehealth and coordinated care approaches impact health care service organization structure and ethos: mixed methods study

      Davidson, Rosemary; Barrett, David Ian; Rixon, Lorna; Newman, Stanton; ; ACT Program; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hull; City University of London (JMIR Publications, 2020-10-09)
      Coordinated care and telehealth services have the potential to deliver quality care to chronically ill patients. They can both reduce the economic burden of chronic care and maximize the delivery of clinical services. Such services require new behaviors, routines, and ways of working to improve health outcomes, administrative efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and user (patient and health professional) experience. The aim of this study was to assess how health care organization setup influences the perceptions and experience of service managers and frontline staff during the development and deployment of integrated care with and without telehealth. As part of a multinational project exploring the use of coordinated care and telehealth, questionnaires were sent to service managers and frontline practitioners. These questionnaires gathered quantitative and qualitative data related to organizational issues in the implementation of coordinated care and telehealth. Three analytical stages were followed: (1) preliminary analysis for a direct comparison of the responses of service managers and frontline staff to a range of organizational issues, (2) secondary analysis to establish statistically significant relationships between baseline and follow-up questionnaires, and (3) thematic analysis of free-text responses of service managers and frontline staff. Both frontline practitioners and managers highlighted that training, tailored to the needs of different professional groups and staff grades, was a crucial element in the successful implementation of new services. Frontline staff were markedly less positive than managers in their views regarding the responsiveness of their organization and the pace of change. The data provide evidence that the setup of health care services is positively associated with outcomes in several areas, particularly tailored staff training, rewards for good service, staff satisfaction, and patient involvement.
    • Enable a facile size re-distribution of MBE-grown Ga-droplets via in situ pulsed laser shooting

      Geng, Biao; Shi, Zhenwu; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Linyun; Deng, Changwei; Yang, Xinning; Miao, Lili; Peng, Changsi; Soochow University; et al. (Springer, 2021-08-04)
      A MBE-prepared Gallium (Ga)-droplet surface on GaAs (001) substrate is in situ irradiated by a single shot of UV pulsed laser. It demonstrates that laser shooting can facilely re-adjust the size of Ga-droplet and a special Ga-droplet of extremely broad size-distribution with width from 16 to 230 nm and height from 1 to 42 nm are successfully obtained. Due to the energetic inhomogeneity across the laser spot, the modification of droplet as a function of irradiation intensity (IRIT) can be straightly investigated on one sample and the correlated mechanisms are clarified. Systematically, the laser resizing can be perceived as: for low irradiation level, laser heating only expands droplets to make mergences among them, so in this stage, the droplet size distribution is solely shifted to the large side; for high irradiation level, laser irradiation not only causes thermal expansion but also thermal evaporation of Ga atom which makes the size-shift move to both sides. All of these size-shifts on Ga-droplets can be strongly controlled by applying different laser IRIT that enables a more designable droplet epitaxy in the future.
    • Effect of trypsin concentration on living SMCC-7721 cells studied by atomic force microscopy

      Yan, Jin; Xie, Chenchen; Zhu, Jiajing; Song, Zhengxun; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Li (Wiley, 2021-08-05)
      Trypsin is playing an important role in the processes of cancer proliferation, invasion, and metastasis which require the precise information of morphology and mechanical properties on the nanoscale for the related research. In this work, living human hepatoma (SMCC-7721) cells were treated with different concentrations of trypsin solution. The morphology and mechanical properties of the cells were measured via atomic force microscope (AFM). Statistical analyses of measurement data indicated that with the increase of trypsin concentration, the average cell height and the surface roughness were both increased, but the cell viability, the cell surface adhesion and the elasticity modulus were decreased significantly. The force required to puncture the cells was also gradually reduced. It indicates that trypsin not only hydrolyzes the proteins between the cell and the substrate but also the membrane proteins. The results offer valuable clues for the cancerous process study, pathological analysis, and trypsin inhibitor drug development. And this work provides an effective way for overcoming the cell membrane in drug injection for cell-targeted therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    • Race and educational leadership: the influence of research methods and critical theorising in understanding representation, roles and ethnic disparities

      Maylor, Uvanney; Roberts, Lorna; Linton, Kenisha; Arday, Jason; University of Bedfordshire; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Greenwich; Durham University (SAGE, 2021-06-29)
      Editorial. The special issue offers new knowledge about racialised educational experiences by shedding light on racialised leadership in school and higher education in diverse geographical and educational contexts in England, Canada, America and South Africa through a mix of research methods (phenomenological, longitudinal, documentary, semi-structured interviews), analytical (content and textual analysis) and theoretical approaches (critical race theory [CRT], critical ecological). This special issue prioritises the centring of educational leaders’ lived experiences and their voices alongside the research methods used to illuminate the nuances associated with race and educational leadership in schools and higher education. The prism of race enables us to add new educational leadership insights to the field associated with ethnicity, gender, culturally constructed notions of leadership, intersectionality and/or geographical location. The findings highlight implications for researching race and educational leadership.
    • Trilogy on strategies of disruption in research methodologies: article 1 of 3 the unsettlement of tourism studies: positive decolonization, deep listening, and dethinking today

      Hollinshead, Keith; Suleman, Rukeya; Nair, Bipithalal Balakrishnan (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2021-04-30)
      Recent years have witnessed the rise of many new and/or corrective approaches across the social sciences that have challenged the received assumptive frameworks through which the world is inspected and interpreted methodologically. Late decades have brought the rise of a new generation of scholars who work through "resistance politics" approaches in pursuit of, for instance, social justice causes or posthumanist convictions. The purpose of this article (and its two companion articles in later issues of Tourism, Culture & Communication) is to capture the possibilities and the tensions in the development and cultivation of such "disruptive" or "promiscuous" research acts, and to conceptually situate them within Tourism Studies—the domain that covers the "worldmaking"/"declarative power" of tourism to interpret and inscribe the peoples, places, pasts, and presents across the globe. In principally mining the neoteric and landmark text Disruptive Qualitative Inquiry (Brown, Carducci, and Kuby), an attempt is made to locate the interruptive craft of such unfolding disruptive thinking of and about tourism as rising numbers of Tourism Studies researchers themselves seek to decolonize their methodologies from the stranglehold of Western Modern Science and reverberate more positively with populations that have been subjugated or suppressed through tourism. In building up to the provision of a 30-term glossary (cumulatively provided across the said three companion articles) delineating the fresh thinking that is involved in such disruptive inquiry, this first article targets approaches that beckon forms of interpretive plural knowability, which demand the fluid acumen to map the less-fixed/fast-changeable populations of our time, and which are thereby decent yet rigorous in their critical multilogicality ; hence, this first article glossary covers terms such as "reversing the binaries," "promiscuous methodologies," and "working the hyphens." In this innovative light, the second companion article glossary identifies conceptualizations such as "guided wandering," "postqualitative research," and "survivance" in order to expand the ontology and epistemology of Tourism Studies, while the glossary in the third article offers conceptualizations such as "uncrossable methodolodies," "helicopter research," and "stuckness," which—in their different ways—speak to the transformative rhetorics of futurity for tourism and the peoples and places of the world.
    • A novel classified ledger framework for data flow protection in AIoT networks

      Han, Daoqi; Wu, Songqi; Hu, Zhuoer; Gao, Hui; Liu, Enjie; Lu, Yueming; Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications; University of Bedfordshire (Hindawi, 2021-02-19)
      The edge computing node plays an important role in the evolution of the artificial intelligence-empowered Internet of things (AIoTs) that converge sensing, communication, and computing to enhance wireless ubiquitous connectivity, data acquisition, and analysis capabilities. With full connectivity, the issue of data security in the new cloud-edge-terminal network hierarchy of AIoTs comes to the fore, for which blockchain technology is considered as a potential solution. Nevertheless, existing schemes cannot be applied to the resource-constrained and heterogeneous IoTs. In this paper, we consider the blockchain design for the AIoTs and propose a novel classified ledger framework based on lightweight blockchain (CLF-LB) that separates and stores data rights at the source and enables a thorough data flow protection in the open and heterogeneous network environment of AIoT. In particular, CLF-LB divides the network into five functional layers for optimal adaptation to AIoTs applications, wherein an intelligent collaboration mechanism is also proposed to enhance the across-layer operation. Unlike traditional full-function blockchain models, our framework includes novel technical modules, such as block regenesis, iterative reinforcement of proof-of-work, and efficient chain uploading via the system-on-chip system, which are carefully designed to fit the cloud-edge-terminal hierarchy in AIoTs networks. Comprehensive experimental results are provided to validate the advantages of the proposed CLF-LB, showing its potentials to address the secrecy issues of data storage and sharing in AIoTs networks.
    • The impact of the Luton social prescribing programme on mental well-being: a quantitative before-and-after study

      Pescheny, Julia Vera; Gunn, Laura H.; Pappas, Yannis; Randhawa, Gurch; (Oxford University Press, 2019-12-27)
      Background Social prescribing programmes expand the range of options available to primary care health professionals to address patients’ psychosocial needs, impacting on their health and well-being. The objective of this study was to assess the change in the mental well-being of service users after participation in the Luton social prescribing programme. Methods Skew-normal (SN) regression was applied to analyse the change in mental well-being post-intervention (N = 63). The short Warwick–Edinburgh mental well-being scale was used as the outcome measure. Results The SN regression found a statistically significant change (P < 0.0001) in the average difference score between baseline and post-intervention measures. However, the observed change does not appear to be of clinical relevance. No significant associations in mental well-being scores by gender, age or working status were found. Conclusion Findings of this study indicate that social prescribing may have the potential to improve the mental well-being of service users. The study findings contribute to the sparse evidence base on social prescribing outcomes by socio-demographic characteristics of participants and highlight the importance of considering subgroup analysis in future research.
    • Book review: Your booksmart, school- savvy, stress-busting primary teacher training companion

      Mistry, Malini Tina (Taylor and Francis, 2021-03-29)
      review of: Your booksmart, school- savvy, stress-busting primary teacher training companion by Elizabeth Malone, 2020, London, Sage, 178 pp., £16.99 (paperback), ISBN: 978-1-5264-9419-1
    • Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and adverse pregnancy outcome in South Asia: a systematic review

      Mistry, Sabuj Kanti; Das Gupta, Rajat; Alam, Sabiha; Kaur, Kuljeet; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Puthussery, Shuby; BRAC University, Dhaka; University of New South Wales; University of Dhaka; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2021-07-03)
      Introduction The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing in developing countries including the South Asian Nations. The current study aimed to examine the association of GDM with adverse pregnancy outcomes from foetal and maternal perspectives in South Asia. Methods A systematic review was conducted including primary studies published since January 2020 from South Asian countries. Following electronic databases were searched to locate the articles: MEDLINE, EMBASE and EMCARE. Data were extracted using a customized extraction tool and methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using modified Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) quality assessment tool. Narrative synthesis was performed as statistical pooling was not possible due to the heterogeneous nature of the studies. Results Eight studies were included in the review. Overall, the review found a positive correlation between GDM and adverse foetal outcomes such as macrosomia, neonatal hyperglycaemia, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), stillbirths and low birthweight (LBW), but the findings were not conclusive. GDM was also positively associated with preeclampsia but the association between GDM and C-section delivery was not conclusive. Conclusion Policymakers, public health practitioners and researchers in South Asia should take in to account the link between GDM and adverse pregnancy outcomes while designing interventions to promote maternal health in South Asia. Researchers should focus on conducting longitudinal studies in future to clearly understand the epidemiology and pathobiology of this issue.
    • Repeated parallel losses of inflexed stamens in Moraceae: phylogenomics and generic revision of the tribe Moreae and the reinstatement of the tribe Olmedieae (Moraceae)

      Gardner, Elliot M.; Garner, Mira; Cowan, Robyn S.; Dodsworth, Steven; Epitawalage, Niroshini; Arifiani, Deby; Baker, William J.; Forest, Felix; Maurin, Olivier; Zerega, Nyree JC; et al. (Wiley, 2021-07-06)
      We present a densely sampled phylogenomic study of the mulberry tribe (Moreae, Moraceae), an economically important clade with a global distribution, revealing multiple losses of inflexed stamens, a character traditionally used to circumscribe Moreae. Inflexed stamens facilitate ballistic pollen release and are associated with wind pollination, and the results presented here suggest that losses of this character state may have evolved repeatedly in Moraceae. Neither Moreae nor several of its major genera (Morus, Streblus, Trophis) were found to be monophyletic. A revised system for a monophyletic Moreae is presented, including the reinstatement of the genera Ampalis, Maillardia, Taxotrophis, and Paratrophis, and the recognition of the new genus Afromorus. Pseudostreblus is reinstated and transferred to the Parartocarpeae, and Sloetiopsis is reinstated and transferred to the Dorstenieae. The tribe Olmedieae is reinstated, replacing the Castilleae, owing to the reinstatement of the type Olmedia and its exclusion from Moreae. Streblus s.str. is excluded from Moreae and transferred to the Olmedieae, which is characterized primarily by involucrate inflorescences without regard to stamen position. Nine new combinations are made.
    • On (not) learning from self-neglect safeguarding adult reviews

      Preston-Shoot, Michael (Emerald Group Holdings Ltd., 2021-07-09)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to update the core data set of self-neglect safeguarding adult reviews (SARs) and accompanying thematic analysis. It also explores whether lessons are being learned from the findings and recommendations of an increasing number of reviews on self-neglect cases. Design/methodology/approach: Further published reviews are added to the core data set, mainly drawn from the websites of safeguarding adults boards (SABs). Thematic analysis is updated using the domains used previously. The domains and the thematic analysis are grounded in the evidence-based model of good practice, reported in this journal previously. Findings: Familiar findings emerge from the thematic analysis and reinforce the evidence-base of good practice with individuals who self-neglect and for policies and procedures with which to support those practitioners working with such cases. Multiple exclusion homelessness and alcohol misuse are prominent. Some SABs are having to return to further cases of self-neglect to review, inviting scrutiny of what is (not) being learned from earlier findings and recommendations. Research limitations/implications: The national database of reviews commissioned by SABs remains incomplete. The Care Act 2014 does not require publication of reports but only a summary of findings and recommendations in SAB annual reports. National Health Service Digital annual data sets do not enable the identification of reviews by types of abuse and neglect. However, the first national analysis of SARs has found self-neglect to be the most prominent type of abuse and/or neglect reviewed. Drawing together the findings builds on what is known about the components of effective practice, and effective policy and organisational arrangements for practice. Practical implications: Answering the question “why” remains a significant challenge for SARs. The findings confirm the relevance of the evidence-base for effective practice but SARs are limited in their analysis of what enables and what obstructs the components of best practice. Greater explicit use of research and other published SARs might assist with answering the “why” question. Greater scrutiny is needed of the impact of the national legal, policy and financial context within which adult safeguarding is situated. Originality/value: The paper extends the thematic analysis of available reviews that focus on study with adults who self-neglect, further reinforcing the evidence base for practice. Propositions are explored, concerned with whether learning is being maximised from the process of case review.
    • The neoconservative party, or conservatism without tradition?

      Hoctor, Tom (Wiley, 2021-07-15)
      This article argues that the Conservative Party finds itself in a period of ideological crisis. The last significant period of intellectual realignment in the party led to the dominance of Hayekian market theory as a structuring logic for government. Under Boris Johnson, this economic logic is challenged by the political logic of neoconservatism, which restores the political through appeals to authority, hierarchy and quite particular articulations of the nature of the (national) community. To demonstrate this tension, the article examines how Brexit and the ‘levelling-up’ agenda can be understood as structured by this division between the economic and the political. Both of these logics are incompatible with older, traditional forms of conservatism and whichever is ultimately successful, this signals a major shift in the character of British conservatism and potentially ushers in a new era of conservatism without tradition.
    • Review of: Building systems that work for young children: international insights from innovative early childhood systems

      Mistry, Malini Tina (Taylor and Francis, 2021-07-16)
      Book review of: Building systems that work for young children: international insights from innovative early childhood systems, edited by Sharon Lynn Kagan, 2019, Columbia University: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 248 pp., £24.99 (paperback), ISBN: 978-0-8077-6129-8
    • Large shareholding and firm value in the Alternative Investment Market (AIM)

      Mortazian, Mona; Tabaghdehi, Seyedeh Asieh H.; Mase, Bryan (Springer, 2018-11-30)
      This paper investigates the impact of non-managerial and managerial blockholders on the value of the firms listed in the Alternative Investment Market (AIM). This study mainly investigates whether the effect of blockholders on firm value is due to the AIM high ownership concentration and low investor protection. The primary empirical finding, using GMM, justifies that non-managerial and managerial blockholders in the AIM affect the firm value in different ways. Non-managerial blockholders in the AIM improve the firm value by monitoring managers when their block sizes are up to 32%. However, when their block sizes exceed 32%, the blockholders expropriate other shareholders.
    • Liquidity and volatility of stocks moved from the Main Market to the Alternative Investment Market (AIM)

      Mortazian, Mona; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2021-07-10)
      Companies moving from the Main market of London Stock Exchange to the AIM impair their information environment when entering the AIM; the information environment is measured by the stock’s liquidity and volatility. The primary empirical finding is that movement from the Main Market to the AIM decreases the liquidity and volatility of stocks. After controlling for the effects of factors that are known to affect stock liquidity and for the change in company characteristics after the movement date in the multivariate analysis, it is found that moving to the AIM is associated with a significant increase in Amihud illiquidity and the bid–ask spread and with a decrease in stock return volatility. The documented effects of movement to the AIM are found to be sustained over a long period of time following the movement event. This therefore implies that moving from the Main Market to the AIM is not improving the companies’ liquidity and volatility.
    • A nuclear phylogenomic study of the angiosperm order Myrtales, exploring the potential and limitations of the universal Angiosperms353 probe set

      Maurin, Olivier; Anest, Artemis; Bellot, Sidonie; Biffin, Edward; Brewer, Grace E.; Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Cowan, Robyn S.; Dodsworth, Steven; Epitawalage, Niroshini; Gallego, Berta; et al. (Wiley, 2021-07-31)
      To further advance the understanding of the species-rich, economically and ecologically important angiosperm order Myrtales in the rosid clade, comprising nine families, approximately 400 genera and almost 14,000 species occurring on all continents (except Antarctica), we tested the Angiosperms353 probe kit. We combined high-throughput sequencing and target enrichment with the Angiosperms353 probe kit to evaluate a sample of 485 species across 305 genera (76% of all genera in the order). Results provide the most comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for the order to date. Relationships at all ranks, such as the relationship of the early-diverging families, often reflect previous studies, but gene conflict is evident, and relationships previously found to be uncertain often remain so. Technical considerations for processing HTS data are also discussed. High-throughput sequencing and the Angiosperms353 probe kit are powerful tools for phylogenomic analysis, but better understanding of the genetic data available is required to identify genes and gene trees that account for likely incomplete lineage sorting and/or hybridization events.